10th Australian Small Bridges Conference 2020
 
Our accepted abstracts from the First Call For Abstracts are shown below.
 
 
There will later be a Second Call for Abstracts. However if you wish to submit an abstract now you may do so.
 
Accepted Abstracts for 2020 from the First Call are:
Ali Chaboki
Principal Engineer- Structures
V/Line
MAINTENANCE OF RAIL IN CONCRETE DECK BRIDGES IN REGIONAL VICTORIAN RAILWAY
 
Rail In Concrete (RIC) deck bridges are one of the most common types of railway bridges which have been used widely in around the world for short span bridges. For instance, about 30% of regional railway bridges in Victoria (now V/Line network) are RIC deck bridges and their average age is around 70 years.
 
In this type of deck, several side-by-side “used rails” are embedded in concrete as the main structural element of the deck. These bridges are not common anymore and battle deck superstructure with new steel profiles is more common for new bridges.
 
This type of superstructure has several advantages including:
  1. easy to construct especially in remote areas
  2. low maintenance cost and
  3. acceptable strength and durability
  4. environmental benefits like using “used material” and less carbon footprint.
However, due to embedment of rails in concrete, inspection and assessment of these decks is not that easy and corrosion and section loss of the embedded rails cannot be measured.
 
Given the number of these bridges and their average age, safety assessment and “As Is” load rating of these bridges is getting more important and is an ongoing challenge for railway operators.
 
In this paper, inspection methods and load rating of RIC bridge have been reviewed and several practical methods like NDT method for corrosion assessment, deflection test and strain assessment are explored to validate the load rating findings and to shed a light on the to deterioration rate of these bridges.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Ali Chaboki is Principal Engineer - Structures based at Melbourne. For the past five years, he has been working with V/Line, Asset Management department to maintain and renew a broad range of railway infrastructures including bridges, platforms, culverts and tunnels. He holds Bachelors, Masters and PhD degrees in Structural Engineering and has more than 21 years’ experience in the infrastructure sector as the designer, design manager and senior engineer. When it comes to maintenance of bridges, load rating, assessment and inspection, repair and upgrade of a wide range of railway bridges are his main focus.
 
Amir Holakoo
Senior Structural Engineer
Kellogg Brown & Root
James Rajesh
Principal Engineer
Kellogg Brown & Root
DESIGN CHALLENGES OF OPEN TRUSS LONG SPAN PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE
 
As part of the Victorian Governments Western Roads Upgrade project, 8 main roads across the West of Melbourne were improved from access and safety perspective. At the intersection of Palmers and Sayers Roads a new pedestrian crossing was required to continue the Federation Trail across the intersection. The project involved the design, construction and commissioning of the new pedestrian footbridge.
 
One of the main guidelines of the urban design is that the pedestrian bridge is the entry statement to western precinct and an architectural feature and therefore the aesthetics of the bridge and the incorporation of landscaping areas and a flowing safety screen was important.
 
 
 
The large 80m center span of the 220m long bridge required the preferred truss design to be made open from top. This caused various challenges for the design and construction of the bridge. The approach spans of 35m each are of traditional super-T beam construction. The architectural cladding is extended to the approach spans to provide transition of cladding into the approach embankments. The main challenges and lessons learned will be covered in this presentation.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Amir Holakoo has over 12 years’ experience as a Structural Engineer, Amir’s experience covers structural design and analysis, design coordination and interface, documentation, project engineering and construction in transport infrastructure sector, residential and industrial buildings. James has over 20 years’ experience in structural design with specific and well developed skills in bridge engineering, with experience and involvement in several high profile projects. In addition to the design of road, rail bridges and structural infrastructure, James has been responsible for the analysis and design of buildings, industrial and mining structures.
  
James Rajesh has over 20 years’ experience in structural design with specific and well developed skills in bridge engineering, with experience and involvement in several high profile projects. In addition to the design of road, rail bridges and structural infrastructure, James has been responsible for the analysis and design of buildings, industrial and mining structures.
 
Antony Andradi
Senior Engineer Pavement and Structures
Logan City Council
PLANNING FOR REPAINTING AND STRUCTURAL REPAIRS OF RED BRIDGE, BEENLEIGH
 
Logan is surrounded by Brisbane, Gold Coast, Ipswich, Redland and Scenic Rim Regional (SRRC) Councils. The total land area is 957 km2 and the eight largest Local Government by population in Australia.
 
The Red Bridge was constructed in 1930. The bridge is currently used by pedestrian and cyclists to cross the Logan River.
 
The rehabilitation of the Logan River Red Bridge (from Beenleigh to Loganholme) involved:
  • Concrete and steel bridge repair works
  • Repainting the bridge in red
These works, due to be completed in September 2019, are to strengthen the bridge structure and enhance its visual appeal and will continue to catch the eyes of visitors to Logan City. This upgrade will ensure the vitality of this historical land mark.
 
Selecting a red paint with sufficient colour fastness, and corrosion protection, that was also acceptable to elected members was challenging.
 
As part of project scoping a BIM model of the structure was requested from the Consulting Engineers. Gaining a BIM model for an existing infrastructure is an ongoing challenge for local government, and obtaining the BIM Model will assist in future management of the structure.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Antony Andradi is a Chartered Professional Civil Engineer and Registered Professional Engineer of Queensland with more than 24 year experience in Transport Asset Management in Sri Lanka, New Zealand and Australia covering Transport Planning, Transport Asset Management including Asset Systems (RAMM, SMEC), Pavement Modelling (dTIMS - Deighton's Total Infrastructure Asset Management Software), Asset Valuation, Contract Administration and Pavement Management. He has been heavily involved with Logan’s timber bridge replacement projects along with a $25 million Annual Pavement Rehabilitation since he started with Logan City Council in 2011.
 
 
Chris Dowding
Director / Senior Structural Engineer
Tod Consulting
HOW MICROPILES HAVE A ROLE TO PLAY IN BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION
 
In the 1950s, micropiles were invented to underpin historic structures. As time went on, micropiles have been adapted to suit a variety of specialist works, including structural retrofitting in low headroom locations, retrofitting of building structures, and stabilisation of steep earth batters.
 
In the last decade, micropiles have begun to make their way into Australian bridges and other infrastructure.
 
At first appearance, the slender cross-section of micropiles might seem inferior to large diameter bored concrete piles:
  • Bored piles have very good resistance to corrosion, and can carry 2,000 to 70,000kN loads. Bored piles are also very tolerant to scour. When a river-bed drops by several metres during a flood event, bored piles can be designed to handle the resulting loss of horizontal support, increased pile slenderness, increased pile bending moments, and reduced skin friction.
  • Micropiles have fair resistance to corrosion, can carry 300 – 2000kN loads, and can be cased to have a limited tolerance to scour. It should be noted that casings are usually steel, and corrosion resistance is limited to some form of coating.
This paper looks at some real-world projects where micropiles had a clear advantage over normal foundation solutions, and outlines the lessons learnt by the design engineers.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Chris Dowding designs, maintains and modifies Bridges, Infrastructure and Placemaking Structures. He also works with Local Government asset managers, who have the challenge of managing ageing infrastructure & facilities. He gives them clear action plans to minimise whole-of-life costs and keep the community safe.
 
 
Daniel Dalton
Technical Manager
Duratec Australia
Sam Mathankar Asset
Manager Structures
Main Roads Western Australia
Arash Groban
Principal Bridge Engineer
AECOM
Dr Liam Holloway
Managing Director
MEnD Consulting
DURABILITY ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIAL DESIGN OF A MAJOR HERITAGE STRUCTURE - THE NARROWS BRIDGE’
 
Bridge 0953, commonly known as ‘The Narrows Bridge’, spans across the Swan River and serves as the main arterial road conveying north/south bound traffic through, and past Perth’s CBD.
 
Construction of the bridge commenced in 1979 and was completed some two years later. At this time, the bridge was thought to be the largest pre-stressed bridge of its kind in the world, and in 1999 was recognised in the state heritage register for its engineering innovation and historic contribution to Perth’s development.
 
Approaching sixty years of service, inspection works were performed to address various durability concerns relating to some of the safety and architectural features of the bridge. The chosen methodologies were selected based on their ability to overcome various situational constraints inherent with the bridge. Most notably, this involved a conceptual application of Phased Array Ultrasonics to evaluate corrosion of the embedded guard rail posts, mitigating requirements for extensive breakouts.
 
An an alternate lightweight Fibre Reinforced Plastic fascia panel was also designed and prototyped as a replacement to the existing 250kg concrete panels.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Sam Mathankar has 22 years’ experience in roads and civil infrastructure Industry which includes asset management, design management, design co-ordination, construction, contract and project management. He has worked for the various Government Transport Authorities, Local Government, international contractors and engineering consultants. Sam has worked and managed teams in projects that planned, designed, built and maintained transport infrastructure in Australia and overseas and has experience in leading multidisciplinary teams from feasibility to construction stages for various new built, re-alignments and widening /upgrade projects.
 
Liam Holloway’s unique skills and expertise as a materials engineer specialising in durability and corrosion, traverse key infrastructure sectors including marine, mining, defence and energy. Liam completed his PhD in the field of corrosion inhibition and monitoring for reinforced concrete structures at Monash University. Following this he has worked in both the consulting and contracting fields with a focus on asset condition assessment, remediation and maintenance.
 
 
Daniel Stephenson
Lead Structural Engineer
Rockfield Technologies Australia
Eyal Azulay
Senior Civil Engineer
Queensland Rail 
STEEL TRUSS LOAD ASSESSMENT FOR AGING BRIDGES USING FEA AND AS5100:2017
 
Utilization of aging infrastructure, particularly aging bridges, is a worldwide problem. Load rating of aging bridges is critical for asset owners to assess the operational risks.
 
Assessing bridges using traditional engineering methods can sometimes be overly conservative and not cost effective for the asset owners. Finite Element Modelling and Analysis (FEA) has been widely used on bridges, particularly on bridge steel structures, in recent years, and offers potential capacity improvements compared to traditional methods.
 
However, the consideration of structure imperfections and residual stress is always a challenge in FE modelling for steel structures. For the first time, the criteria for FE methods has been detailed in AS5100.6 and provides good guidance for bridge engineers to assess steel structures using FE Modelling. Over the past two years, Rockfield have assessed many steel trusses bridges for QR using FE modelling to analyse and determine the truss load capacities to AS5100.6:2017.
 
The paper provides a detailed insight into FE modelling on steel truss capacity assessment using one of the QR bridges as an example. The modelling and analysis has been conducted using the ANSYS software package. Truss members’ as-is conditions, non-linear material stress-strain, eigenvalue buckling and pre-deformed/displaced geometries form the basis of the analysis process. The paper also presents issues and challenges experienced by the asset owner in managing ageing steel truss bridges, and how the advanced modelling/analysis techniques assists with economical, efficient and targeted inspections and repairs.
 
The asset owner also identifies that existing/historic bridges will not always comply with the latest Standards and trying to achieve full compliance may not be feasible. Assessment may be more a risk-based approach by imposing allowable live loads, reduced live load factors and re-assessment of combinations, in particular horizontal forces that occur simultaneously (e.g. by monitoring wind conditions). Active monitoring of bridge utilisation via sensors such as strain gauges may also form part of the risk-based decision making and load rating.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Daniel Stephenson is an RPEQ qualified Structural Engineer. He has over 11 years of experience of design and review of industrial, mining and public infrastructure including road/rail bridges, bulk material handling fixed plant and rail mounted machines. Daniel specialises in design and installation of structural sensor systems for bridges and machines. He is the lead structural engineer at Rockfield Technologies.
 
Eyal Azulay is a Civil Engineer, RPEQ qualified in the Civil & Structural areas. Eyal’s current role is a Senior Civil Engineer with Queensland Rail Townsville since 2016. Eyal has over 14 years’ experience as a Structural & Civil Engineer in the infrastructure and mining sectors, working for consultancies in Australia and overseas.
 
 
David Han
Bridge Structures Manager
Rockfield Technologies Australia
Bill Weston
Senior Project Engineer
Queensland Rail
LONGITUDINAL BRAKING/TRACTION AND THERMAL FORCE ASSESSMENT FOR RAILWAY BRIDGE TO AS5100:2017
 
The revision to AS5100 in 2017 resulted in significant changes to the braking and traction forces for railway bridges.
 
These changes including the magnitude of the braking and traction forces, the distribution method and the consideration of rail-structure interaction, have increased the assessment effort for bridge engineers to undertake the design of new railway bridges and the assessment of existing railway bridges.
 
The paper will explore practical methods to assess the braking and traction forces, thermal loads and their distribution for both open deck and ballasted deck railway bridges.
 
This paper will also cover the impact of rail-structure interaction consideration and the management of rail on bridges/bridge approaches on railway bridges design.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
David Han is a RPEQ qualified structural engineer and is the Bridge Structures Manager at Rockfield. He has more than 25 years of work experience in structural design primarily in Bridge structures in Australia, Canada and China. He has been involved in the design, verification and assessment of hundreds of bridges including a cable-stayed bridge with 168m single tower and 310m main span. He has extensive design experience in RC, PSC, Steel structures for bridges, mining infrastructure, water and wastewater treatment plants, buildings and marine structures. He has been leading the structural team at Rockfield that is currently working on the assessment of 25+ complex bridges around Australia. .
 
Bill Weston is a RPEQ qualified Mechanical Engineer. His current role, since 2016, is a Senior Project Engineer with Queensland Rail, Townsville. Bill has over 15 years’ experience as a Mechanical Engineer in the food, mining and infrastructure sectors.
  
 
Dion Christian
Diagnostic / Remedial Engineer
Absafe
REPLACEMENT OF CROSS-GIRDERS ON KURANDA RAIL LINE BRIDGE, CAIRNS FNQ
  
The Kuranda Rail Line is a major tourist attraction where a high value is placed on history and the pristine environment. This route however presents a number of technical challenges through the need to maintain critical bridge stock without disturbing the environment or daily functionality of this economically valuable rail route.
 
The rail line which is set in a harsh environment and steep, forested terrain has a number of historic bridges in difficult to reach locations. One such steel truss bridge required replacement of a number of cross-girders which had suffered extensive corrosive section loss which had reduced their load-carrying capacity. This paper focuses on how by combining rope access, technical rigging and customised componentry we were able to remove and replace a series of deteriorated cross-girders on a remote area railway bridge on the Kuranda Rail Line in Cairns FNQ.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Dion Christian is a diagnostic and remedial engineer from Absafe’s engineering team. Before commencing work in the remedial industry, Dion previously worked as a structural engineer in the design of steel, reinforced and post-tensioned concrete structures. Since 2015 Dion has utilized industrial rope access techniques to inspect, diagnose and oversee the remediation of a wide range of structures – ranging from high-rise building facades to bridges, cooling towers and dams. Dion was the lead engineer for the project presented in this case study, and was responsible for the structural design and detailing of -our custom lifting gantry, in-house testing and on-site supervision of works.
 
 
Dr Dominique Cavell
Technical Director
Aurecon
Mahes Rajakaruna
Structures Design and Standards Engineer
Main Roads Western Australia
USE OF STRAIN SENSOR TECHNOLOGY AND ANALYTICAL MODELLING FOR BRIDGE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF BRIDGE NO 1223, WA
 
Bridge No 1223 is a 46 year old prestressed concrete bridge located on the Melville Mandurah Highway over the northbound Kwinana railway marshalling yard. The three span superstructure comprise 8 No. precast post-tensioned beams with half-joints in the central span. The side spans are 17.1m, with the central span being approximately 17m between the half joints.
 
 
The bridge had previously been strengthened at the half joints with external steel plates and high-strength steel tie rods. Due to residual concerns over the capacity of the bridge and how the half joints were performing, the bridge had been retrofitted with a structural health monitoring system comprising strain gauges, accelerometers and various sensors.
 
In order to assess the behaviour and structural response of the bridge under various traffic loading, an analytical 3D model was developed and calibrated against the results from field data. This was undertaken in collaboration with research partners at Curtin University as part of the SBENRC research project.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Dr Dominique Cavell is Aurecon’s Bridges Leader in Perth, with over 25 years’ experience in transport infrastructure projects encompassing the design, inspection, assessment and strengthening of bridges. Dominique has a PhD in the Assessment of the residual strength of deteriorating post-tensioned concrete bridges, and having worked closely with bridge asset owners in the UK and with Main Roads WA, she is passionate about developing methods to prolong the service life of existing bridges.
  
Mahes Rajakaruna has been with Main Roads Western Australia since 2002. In his current position, he manages the review, development and maintenance of all standards and processes relating to bridge design, construction and maintenance. Prior to moving to Perth, he was a lecturer in Civil Engineering at the University of South Australia for over 12 years.
 
 
Donald Richardson
Managing Director
Tiaki Engineering Consultants NEW ZEALAND
Jeandré le Roux
Bridge Design Engineer
Tiaki Engineering Consultants NEW ZEALAND
THOMPSONS HORTICULTURE  BRIDGE - DESIGN OF 96M MULTI-SPAN COMPOSITE BRIDGE
 
In September 2018, Tiaki Engineering Consultants Ltd. was engaged to design a 96m bridge crossing the Waipaoa River in Te Karaka, Gisborne, allowing for safe access to the Kiwi fruit orchards owned by Thompsons Horticulture Ltd. The project is currently under construction with expected completion at the end of December 2019.
 
 
 
This project has utilised various technical fields and will allow for a wide range of discussions during presentation. Discussion points identified are:
  1. Flood Modelling:   Numerous flood scenarios were considered assessing the existing river flow as well as the impact of the proposed structure on the river bed. Various soffit heights were considered, including a low-level structure (original concept).
  2. Geotechnical Investigation:  Assessment of investigation methodology suitable given the intended purpose, size, location and structural arrangement of the bridge. Three machined boreholes up to 21m depth with SPT’s conducted at regular intervals.
  3. Structural Modelling and Design: The structure was modelled with state of the art StaadPro Connect Edition (Bentley) while loads were derived in accordance with the NZTA Bridge Manual and AS5100.2. Hydraulic loads, debris accumulation and seismic events were all considered.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Donald Richardson has over the past 22 years in New Zealand, been involved with design, technical supervision and management of projects, people and consulting engineering offices in Tauranga. Donald’s historic background is in Bridges, road structures, drainage, industrial structural design, wastewater treatment and pipeline infrastructure and heavy foundation works.
 
Jeandre le Roux is responsible for the conceptualisation, design, construction monitoring and planning of medium sized road, farm and pedestrian bridges. He also takes responsibility for the design, design verification and reviews of industrial plants in and around the Bay of Plenty region. Jeandre is a well versed individual and comfortable and experienced in addressing large crowds.
 
 
Felix Lie
Bridge Engineer
Jacobs
DESIGN OF PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES
 
Pedestrian bridge projects present a unique set of challenges compared to road or rail bridges. Designers must manage and address established design criteria (codes, specifications and performance requirements) as well as project specific design criteria. These project specific design criteria are critical to the success of the project. They are unique to each site and require a broad understanding of Civil Engineering to identify, interpret and successfully address.
 
The project specific design criteria should be summarised and grouped into separate key design considerations. They include all aspects of the bridge life cycle, from inception, through design, construction, operations, maintenance all the way to demolition. Some key design considerations include: the positioning of the bridge; the form of the bridge; urban design; the type of access (lift, ramp or stairs); the existing site constraints; the stakeholders & community expectations; constructability; and operation & maintenance considerations.
 
This paper explores each of these key design considerations, using relevant examples from completed projects. Jacobs has been involved in several recent projects, including a Pedestrian Bridge over the Cumberland Highway at North Parramatta, a Pedestrian Bridge over Beecroft Road at Beecroft and a Pedestrian Bridge over the Great Western Highway at Bullaburra.  Lessons learned from these projects will be discussed and should prove useful to Engineers that will be involved in the planning, design and construction of future pedestrian bridges.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Felix Lie has five years of experience in engineering consultancy as a structural designer. He has worked on various bridge projects including a 180 metres long twin steel trough girder bridge, pre-stressed concrete bridges, truss bridges and I girder bridges. His areas of proficiency include structural analysis & modelling and structural design.
 
 
Gavin Chadbourn
Manager- Asset Strategy & Planning
pitt&sherry
Rhett Watters
Specialist Structural Engineer – Bridges and Materials
pitt&sherry 
FROM DATA TO INFORMATION – BRIDGING THE GAP ON HOW TO INCREASE VALUE FROM INSPECTION PROGRAMS
 
Asset owners collect large amounts of data on their bridges through condition inspection programs. Managing, storing and analysing this data to transform it into information for strategic and tactical decision making is at the core of bridge asset management.
 
This paper will:
  • Present some insights into how bridge owners can maximise their return on the investment in data collection to better manage bridge and network performance.
  • Describe insights into data collection, data management, analysis and discussion on improvements to how heavy vehicle permits applications can be assessed and management and efficiencies gained.
  • Provide insights into how value can be extracted from inspection programs to deliver cost effective maintenance and capital programs.
With Councils responsible for issuing of heavy vehicle permits a case study will be presented on how inspection data is used to cost effectively develop a network map to manage heavy vehicle permits.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Gavin Chadbourn is a Chartered Civil Engineer and Certified Asset Management Assessor (CAMA) with over 25 years' experience in asset management as a consultant and asset manager with a focus on transport infrastructure. He is a specialist in asset condition inspection programs, asset management ICT planning and deployment; asset management plan development and strategic asset planning.
 
Rhett Watters is a Chartered Structural Engineer and Project Director based in Newcastle, New South Wales. Rhett has over 8 years’ experience assisting clients in achieving low life cycle cost asset life and durable structures. He is experienced in condition assessment, diagnosis investigation, deterioration modelling, residual life assessment, life cycle costing, detailed design of remedial engineering and construction phase surveillance. Rhett is an active member within the engineering community and has served as a committee member for the Australasian Concrete Repair Association (ACRA)
 
Hai Le - 1
Senior Bridge Engineer
GHD
THE FULL ANCHORAGE STEEL REINFORCEMENT THROUGH CORED HOLE TECHNIQUE FOR SHEAR STRENGTHENING FOR THE PRE-STRESSED CONCRETE I GIRDER
 
Recently, there is a number of methodologies developed for strengthening concrete bridge beam structures such as deep embedment technique, embedded though section FRP rods, External bonded FRP sheets, near surface mounted FRP rods, external bonded and bolted steel plates, web beam enlargement, and the external posted tension system etc.
 
The full anchorage ductile steel reinforcement through cored holes is the first project that has been successfully designed and constructed for 1.2 m depth the pre-stress concrete in Tasmania. The Meander Valley Underpass Bridge is a single span pre-stressed superstructure bridge of 18 m long simply supported structure. For inserting the reinforcement bars into the 1.2 m depth pre-stressed concrete girders, the cored holes of 20 mm diameter x 1200 mm depth need to be drilled through 42.3 mm gaps between pre-stress strands from the girder soffit. 
 
This paper presents the issues that related to the design process from concept to the detailed strengthening design. Finally, the bridge is strengthened successful without any damaged bridge structural component.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Hai Le is a Senior Bridge Engineer at GHD in Hobart office. He holds 2 Bachelor degrees (Software Engineering, Civil Engineering). In addition, Hai also holds a Master Degree in Construction Engineering. Hai has a wide range work experience from construction engineering to consultancy. Currently, he is focusing on detailed design, assessment and strengthening for differing bridge type such as the pre-stressed, post-tensioned concrete structures and composite structures. He is fascinated in writing computer programs for bridge structural analysis and design.
 
 
Hai Le - 2
Senior Bridge Engineer
GHD
NEW STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS SOFTWARE FOR BRIDGE NETWORKS
 
Existing bridges are typicaly designed for standard vehicle configurations, with mass and ground contact width less than that of Oversize and Overmass (OSOM) vehicles. Therefore, when OSOM vehicles operate on certain routes there is a need to apply for a heavy load permit.
 
Currently, the methodology to assess bridge networks including using line load analysis for screening the bridge network (level 1), using the Percentage Live Load distribution factors (PLLF) to determine load actions for each beam based on the line load analysis results (level 2&3), undertaking detailed assessment ( level 4) for bridges that failed the screening. The limitations of the bridge assessment level 2 and 2 are unable to calculate accurately live load design actions for bridge beams. On the other hand, detailed bridge assessment is expensive and time consuming.
 
A new computer program using 3D-grillage model to undertake structural analysis was successfully developed. This program is the first computer program able to perform bridge structural analysis for all kinds of bridges at network level with different support types. The program can undertake structural analysis for hundreds to thousands of bridges in the network within a couple of hours. Output includes maximum bending moment with coincident shear force, maximum shear force with coincident moment, and maximum support reaction at nodes.
In this presentation, the program will perform structural analysis at level 4 for typical bridges in a bridge network. The theory and structural analysis method to develop the program will also be briefly presented.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Hai Le is a Senior Bridge Engineer at GHD in Hobart office. He holds 2 Bachelor degrees (Software Engineering, Civil Engineering). In addition, Hai also holds a Master Degree in Construction Engineering. Hai has a wide range work experience from construction engineering to consultancy. Currently, he is focusing on detailed design, assessment and strengthening for differing bridge type such as the pre-stressed, post-tensioned concrete structures and composite structures. He is fascinated in writing computer programs for bridge structural analysis and design.
 
 
Hamidreza Sadeghi
Senior Geotechnical Engineer
Katahira Engineers International JAPAN
SOFT GROUND IMPROVEMENT WORKS FOR AN EXTRADOSED BRIDGE IN MYANMAR
 
This paper reports the soft ground improvement works and studies done for an Extradosed Bridge under construction in Kawkareik, Myanmar.
 
Among all the required design efforts and challenges in construction of the presented bridge, the soft ground ‌beneath the bridge alignment and especially both abutments were of major concerns.
 
The very soft silty clay that extended in various levels of the ground had such a complex geometry and variation that called for supplementary geotechnical investigations. This soft layer would cause huge damages to the structure and roadway through excessive residual settlements if not well-treated.
 
The other key challenge was how could to accelerate the expected consolidation settlement in a cost-effective fashion.
 
This paper summaries the key steps in the ground model and material parameter assessment, numerical analysis and monitoring process of the soft ground settlement for the Extradosed Bridge in Myanmar.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Hamidreza (Hamid) Sadeghi  is a structural/geotechnical engineer. Hamid has more than 14 years of consultancy services experience of various infrastructure study and design. Having studied his masters’ in geotechnical engineering in Tehran, Iran he did his Ph.D. in Kyoto University in 2014 and has worked for Japanese consultant companies since then.
 
 
Henry Zhang
Technical Executive, Geotechnics
WSP Australia
STATE-OF-PRACTICE IN LARGE DIAMETER DRIVEN TUBULAR STEEL PILES ON WOOLGOOLGA TO BALLINA PACIFIC HIGHWAY UPGRADE PROJECT
 
Large diameter (>900mm) driven tubular steel piles have become a preferred footing system for support of buildings, bridges and other structures because of their relative ease of installation, high capacity and low cost and have played an important role in the Pacific Highway upgrade project.
 
This paper will discuss case histories of driven tubular steel piles on the on-going Woolgoolga to Ballina (W2B) Pacific Highway Upgrade project. This $5 billion project is Australia’s largest regional infrastructure project and will upgrade about 155 kilometers of highway to four-lane, divided road. The project starts about six kilometers north of Woolgoolga (north of Coffs Harbour) and ends approximately six kilometers south of Ballina. Roads and Maritime Services (RMS) has engaged Pacific Complete, comprising Laing O'Rourke and WSP, to partner with the RMS Pacific Highway Office to deliver the project. Pacific Complete will deliver the project using a Delivery Partner model similar to the approach used for the construction of the London Olympics infrastructure.
 
There are 100 bridges on W2B, driven tubular steel piles are adopted on 43 of them. Three major river crossings: 870m long new bridge over Shark Creek at Shark Creek, 1.5 km long new bridge over Clarence River at Harwood, and 1.0km long new bridge over Richmond River at Broadwater. A total of 762 driven piles have been installed and approximately 39% were tested using Pile Dynamic Analyzer (PDA). The pile inner diameter varies from 900 to 2400 mm and the pile penetration length ranges from 13 to 65 m. The pile ultimate compression load increases from 3 to 24 MN per pile.
 
Common practice, challenges with design, installation and site verification will be discussed. State-of-practice and good lessons learnt on driven pile design and construction will be shared. Recommendations on drivability analysis and hammer selection, estimate of realistic unit shaft and base resistance for pile procurement, risk mitigation of piles terminating in soils, hard rocks and basalt, commentary on local driven pile specifications (RMS, TMR) will be provided.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Henry Zhang is a Technical Executive with WSP in ANZ. He has over 20 years of professional experience in geotechnical engineering design and construction in Australia, Singapore and China. Henry has broad experience in geotechnical design and construction phase services on foundations, soft ground, deep excavations and retaining walls and finite element analysis on complex soil-structure interaction. Henry’s leading technical skills have been demonstrated by publishing 21 technical papers/presentations and giving 3 invited lectures (at UTS & Sydney Uni) on soft ground improvement, retaining walls and pile foundations.
 
 
 
 
Ian Ward
Associate Director and Roads & Rail Leader (Vic),
TSA Management
RETAINING WALL SYSTEMS INTERFACING WITH BRIDGE ABUTMENT WALLS
 
The Level Crossing Removal Project (LXRP) is a dedicated Victorian State Government transport development and delivery agency responsible for the removal of 75 of the most dangerous and congested at-grade road-rail level crossing sites across the Melbourne metropolitan region.
 
The core scope for these projects is the design and construction of grade-separated over and under bridge structures and approaches. This includes consideration for shared user path (SUP) requirements in addition to significant road and rail trafficable bridges and underpasses.
 
As part of these works, various retaining wall systems have been constructed for the bridge approaches adjacent to abutment walls, based on applicable Standards and/or Asset Owner requirements.
 
This presentation provides an overview of these soil retention structures and discusses the challenges in addressing Stakeholder concerns and ensuring an adequate level of integrity assurance for the final asset owners and managers, yet still ensuring cost effectiveness for the State.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Ian Ward, Snr Exec MBA (MBS), BE (Civil), FIEAust, is a civil/structural engineer and project manager with over 25 years transport infrastructure experience throughout the project lifecycle; from initial planning and design to construction, commissioning, operation and maintenance. He is highly collaborative with an acute focus on stakeholders and outcomes. Ian is passionate about delivering projects which enhance people’s lives and revitalise communities.
 
Jeremy Jennings
Senior Bridge/Structural Engineer,
WSP Opus NEW ZEALAND
OPAWA BRIDGE REPLACEMENT - BRIDGE ENGINEERING AT A HIGHLY CONSTRAINED SITE
 
Design of the new, 190m long, Opawa River Bridge was complicated by numerous conflicting project constraints and site characteristics that required the unconventional use of standard bridge beam technology and a rational approach to soil-structure interaction to deliver a resilient, cost-effective solution.
 
The new bridge alignment was constrained by existing structures, property boundaries and approach tie-ins which restricted deck height and resulted in a partially curved deck. Piers were positioned to avoid the main river channel, align with the curve transition point and optimise the span and barrier panel arrangements. The hydraulic impact of the new bridge on the scour-prone highway and rail bridges downstream was minimised by providing moderately long spans supported on single-column, hammerhead piers and setting the deck soffit above the 2500-year flood stage. These factors drove a slender SHC beam with continuous in-situ deck solution.
 
A rational approach to soil-structure interaction and ground improvement design addressed the challenging geotechnical conditions at the site: high seismicity (design PGA of 0.66g); highly liquefiable soil; and steep approach batters. Limiting liquefaction-induced lateral spreading and subsidence to within code limits with ground improvement was considered prohibitively expensive. Stone columns were installed to limit displacement to within structural capacity while meeting the seismic performance philosophy.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Jeremy Jennings is a Chartered Professional Engineer and a Senior Bridge/Structural Engineer for WSP Opus based in Christchurch, New Zealand. He has 17 years’ experience in the design and asset management of bridges in New Zealand.
 
 
Jeremy Waldin
Technical Principal
WSP Opus NEW ZEALAND
STATE HIGHWAY 6 WAIHO RIVER BAILEY BRIDGE – EMERGENCY RESPONSE
 
SH6 Waiho Bailey Bridge is located just south of the Franz Josef township in the South Island of New Zealand and is a critical connection for the West Coast. The Bailey bridge was first constructed in 1990 and has since been raised and extended three times due to significant aggradation of the river bed. During a massive storm event on March 26, 2019 the northern abutment and northern-most pier were washed out leading to collapse of several spans of the Bailey bridge.
 
 
 
The cost to the West Coast region in terms of lost business and tourism, caused by the loss of the bridge, was estimated to be in excess of $1M per day. Consequently, there was intense pressure on the New Zealand Transport Agency to restore access across the river and this received national media attention and scrutiny.
 
As Team Leader of the West Coast Bridge Management Contract, Jeremy Waldin lead the $6.5M emergency recovery, establishing and managing an emergency response team which worked across multiple organisations to recover this 170m long bridge in just 18 days.
 
The presentation will describe the damage from the storm event and explain the challenges which needed to be overcome to recover the structure. Finally, the presentation will highlight key lessons from the events, many of which can be applied to emergency response in general.
 
 
 
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Jeremy Waldin is a Chartered Professional Engineer and a Technical Principal for WSP Opus based in Christchurch, New Zealand. He has 12 years’ experience in the design and asset management of bridges and other structures throughout New Zealand.
 
 
Jimmy Wong
Senior Structural Engineer
GHD
MOUNT STREET PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE – REPLACEMENT OF CENTRAL MAST AND EXTERNAL STAYED CABLES
 
The 45 year old Mount Street Pedestrian Bridge is a cable stayed bridge that provides a cyclist and pedestrian link connecting Perth CBD and Kings Park over the Mitchell Freeway in the City of Perth. The single central mast has visible cracking in the cable stay anchorage zone and has been monitored as deteriorating over the past 20 years. The live load capacity was rated at only 2 kPa as a result of the degraded mast and associated concrete strength reduction. The external stayed cables also showed signs of surface corrosion. As the load carrying capacity has been compromised by the degradation of the mast section, protective coating and crack injection repairs would not achieve the required long term solution and, therefore, replacement of mast and stayed cables were adopted as the preferred remedial works by Main Roads WA.
 
The main constraint for the works was the bridge position over a major freeway. Any closures would result in significant impact to the community. Initial assessment indicated that the bridge would not be stable if any of the external stayed cables were removed, and therefore, temporary propping would be required at all times. Conventional temporary support underneath the bridge was not feasible due to the Freeway and so a temporary mast system with stayed cables was developed to support the bridge during the replacement works.
 
This paper presents the options considered, and details used, for the temporary support system during mast and cables replacement with minimal traffic disruptions. The details of loads transfer from the existing/permanent stay cables to temporary stay cables and vice versa will be discussed.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Jimmy Wong is a Senior Structural Engineer and has over 15 years of engineering design experience in heavy infrastructure projects. His background is predominantly in conceptual design through to detailed design for numerous bridges and marine structures in Western Australia and the Northern Territory. Currently, he is focusing on inspection, assessment and refurbishment design of both timber and concrete bridges
 
 
Jonathan Herguais
Director Structures & Civil Infrastructure ANZ
SYSTRA Scott Lister, Melbourne
Ronan Chesnel
Senior Structure Engineer (Technical Manager on Manila L1CEP in Philippines)
SYSTRA – KOREA, Seoul
PI-GIRDER – A FULL SPAN PRECAST VIADUCT FOR THE MANILA L1 CAVITE EXTENSION PROJECT (L1CEP) IN THE PHILIPPINES
 
Common structural solutions to support an elevated metro system usually consist of either a viaduct built by segmental construction (e.g. box girder or Big U-shape girder) or a viaduct built by full span precast construction (e.g. Small U-shape girder).
 
Each solution has pros and cons that are weighted for each project. Full span precast solutions are faster to erect compared to segmental construction and are more economical quantity wise. These solutions also allow for the use of longitudinal pretensioning which is more economical than posttensioning (no anchorages, no ducts, no grouting), but are usually comprised of two independent structures (each one supporting 1 track). The need for independent structures is due to the width and weight limitations to be considered during the transport and erection stage. Full span precast solutions are generally straight, in plan view and in longitudinal profile and include an extra width to accommodate the gauge in curved area while segmental span geometry can follow exactly the geometry of the track alignment
 
The aim of this paper is to describe the constraints of the Manila L1 Cavite Extension project (L1CEP) in the Philippines and the subsequent viaduct design process that led to the development of the Pi-Girder. The constraints included limited space on precast yard, Contractor decision to use full span precast and launching gantry to avoid interfacing with Manila busy roads, typical span length greater than 34m, and narrow ROW. The Pi-Girder combines the benefits of both solutions previously described, i.e. a full span precast solution supporting two tracks, economical quantity wise, allowing a fast construction and fitting in a very constrained urban environment.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Jonathan Herguais was the Project Manager on Manila L1CEP in the Philippines. Coming from a structural engineering background, he has been involved in numerous international transportation projects from Concept study to Detailed Design stage. He developed a solid Project Management experience in complex Infrastructure projects involving multi-disciplinary teams, in a multi-site production environment, for projects in Asia and in the Middle East. He gained extensive managerial experience as Operations Director of SYSTRA’s Korean subsidiary, an engineering company specialised in bridge design. From February 2019, he is based in Melbourne where he now acts as Director Structures & Civil Infrastructure ANZ.
Ronan Chesnel , FRANCE, has extensive experience in the design and calculation of bridges (reinforced and prestressed concrete), from conceptual to detailed design stage, both in France and internationally. He has worked as project manager for the CTW130 industrial railway network in Saudi Arabia. At the moment he is acting as Technical Manager supporting the Contractor on site for the construction of the Manila L1 Cavite Extension Project in Philippines.
 
Ken O'Neill
NSW Bridges Leader
Aurecon
THE “DOS AND DON’TS” OF REPLACING A 1930S CONCRETE BRIDGE WITH A NEW STEEL TRUSS BRIDGE AT A HIGH SKEW
 
 As part of the new Grafton Bridge project, a 1930s three span concrete railway bridge needed to be demolished and replaced to accommodate the new upgraded road on the norther side of the Clarence River. A steel truss bridge was chosen for the bridge replacement as the overall depth of structure was constrained by the existing rail alignment and the new road underneath.
 
 
 
 
The demolition and installation of the new bridge needed to occur over a single 72 hour track possession which was successfully completed in June 2018.
 
The paper will outline key lessons learned for the demolition of the existing bridge, the re-use of the existing pier and abutment to carry shorter end spans and the design and detailing of the steel truss.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Ken O’Neill leads Aurecon's bridges team in NSW and is a Technical Director within the Infrastructure group based in Sydney. He has twenty years’ experience in the detailed design, documentation and construction of major highway, motorway and rail projects in NSW and Victoria. Ken was the Design Manager for this project and worked on the job from tender design right through to construction.
 
 
Kim Guttridge
Senior Principal Structural Engineer
WSP
Tim Pistono
Structural Engineer
WSP 
Satyajit Datar
Technical Director, Infrastructure,
Aurecon
EMBANKMENT RETAINING WALLS CONSTRUCTED IN A NARROW RAIL CORRIDOR
 
This paper focuses on the designs and alternatives in retention of the rail embankments up to 9m high for the Caulfield to Dandenong rail line in Melbourne. The project removed nine level crossings over 13 kilometres of rail corridor, requiring 1.6 km of approach embankments.
 
The team value engineered various types; Large L precast elements stitched to a footing, tension tied walls and planked soldier pile wall. Constraints included, construction in a narrow live rail corridor within a narrower safe zone, rapid construction in corridor occupation times and sustainability targets; re-using as much excavated material as fill as possible.
 
Covered will be:
  • Loads and the wall’s response to loads including;
    • Fill compaction comparing construction design with AS 4678-2002 Appendix J guidance.
    • Train live load to AS5100.2
    • Earthquake loads
  • A practical overview of soil-structure interaction and geotechnical factors
  • Durability and catering for direct current (DC) traction power and structural segregation and electrical isolation for earthing and bonding.
  • Construction benefits and design/structural efficiency of the precast walls in comparison with in-situ walls and other systems
  • Architectural criteria and impact on engineering constraints.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Kim Guttridge has been a consulting engineer for 30 years in Australia and South East Asia. He cites projects in Hong Kong including Hong Kong’s Central Station as pivotal in his career in retention, underground and bridge structures. He has been involved in Melbourne’s rail infrastructure expansion for 15 years. Beginning with the Craigieburn Rail Extension and Middleborough Road Grade Separation in 2005 through to the Caulfield to Dandenong elevated rail viaducts and Melbourne’s Metro expansion currently being constructed.
 
Tim Pistono's seven years of experience has been focused on the transport industry. His experience includes the inspection, design and verification of precast prestressed bridges and underpasses, culvert structures, retaining walls, OHW masts, and heavy load analyses. Timothy also gained experience in water/wastewater design for various SA Water assets. This includes steel pipe structural design, pipe support structures, concrete repair, upgrades to access of water tanks and the conditional assessment of a Victorian–era masonry arch water tank. 
 
 
 
Satyajit Datar, BE (Hons), CPEng, RPEQ, FIEAust has been a consulting engineer for 35 years mostly in Australia and New Zealand, with stints in the Middle East, SE Asia, India, USA and Canada. He has worked in several market sectors including residential, commercial and industrial, manufacturing, defence, water, sports and leisure, food and beverage; and for the last few years with Aurecon, has been leading structural teams for transport infrastructure projects in Melbourne.
 
 
Marcia Prelog
Associate
Aurecon
THARWA BRIDGE MAINTENANCE – LESSONS LEARNT
 
Tharwa Bridge is an impressive example of restoring a historically significant timber bridge for posterity. The renowned Australian engineer Percy Allan designed the original four span timber truss across the Murrumbidgee River, on the southern border of the ACT in 1895. At over 5m above the river, it provides safe, high level access to the local town during flood occurrences.
 
Due to significant deterioration over the years, the bridge was reconstructed between 2008 and 2011 with collaboration from Roads ACT, RMS and Aurecon.
 
This bridge structure is of exceptional national heritage significance due to being one of the oldest surviving Allan trusses in service and the innovative design utilised at the time. It is a key feature of Tharwa’s identity.
  
The restoration employed innovative, modern techniques in timber construction, providing a more sustainable use of timber through increased durability. Now, several years on, we are able to reflect upon and share the key lessons learnt and techniques adopted in the maintenance phase.
 
This paper covers the key design solutions for timber durability and how they have fared over the years, as well as some of the innovative maintenance tasks undertaken.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Marcia Prelog is an Associate within Aurecon who has extensive experience in a variety of bridge structures in Australia and overseas. Her 18 years in the Bridges discipline encompasses design in steel, concrete, composites and timber, working with a range of clients such as RMS, Sydney Trains and Sydney Metro as well as local councils within greater Sydney. Marcia’s current passion is to explore how we can improve the management and longevity of current and future bridges.
 
 
 
Matt Duncanson
Senior Engineer – Materials Technology
SMEC Australia
REVIVING AN ICONIC STRUCTURE – REPAINTING AND STRUCTURAL REPAIRS TO THE LOGAN RIVER RED BRIDGE
 
The Red Bridge is an iconic structure for South-East Queensland. Originally part of the highway connecting Brisbane to the Gold Coast,  it has since 1965 been enjoyed by pedestrians and cyclists. Built in 1930, the main three spans across the Logan River consist of a steel through truss with cast in-situ concrete deck, supported on concrete piers.
 
The most recent major works undertaken on the bridge were circa 2006/2007, which involved protective coating application, however technical details and records are scarce. Although the bridge was painted a vibrant red colour, significant fading had occurred in the areas exposed to ultraviolet light, and corrosion of the steel had commenced in tight areas such as the truss nodes.
 
In 2017, detailed investigations of the bridge were undertaken. A key outcome of this investigation was to determine an economical and technically justified methodology for re-coating the bridge, ensuring long term colour fastness and corrosion protection.
 
Re-coating and repairs for steel and concrete elements of the bridge commenced in February 2019, with works due to be completed by November 2019.
 
This paper provides details of the project from initial investigations and the technical aspects of coating selection, through to completion of works. In the presentation emphasis will be placed on the challenges faced during the construction phase and how they were overcome.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Matt Duncanson is a Senior Engineer in SMEC’s Materials Technology team based on the Gold Coast. He has been involved in the investigation and remediation of dozens of bridges in Queensland. Matt aims to provide practical and justifiable long term bridge management solutions, which are tailored to the specific needs of the project.
 
 
Dr Oliver de Lautour
Associate
Aurecon NEW ZEALAND
TAMAVUA BRIDGE REPLACEMENT – STRUCTURAL AND GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN CHALLENGES
 
Tamavua bridge carries Queens Road across the Tamavua River in Suva, Fiji and is the main transport and freight route into Suva.
 
Fiji Roads Authority has appointed Fletcher Construction South Pacific and design partner Aurecon to replace the existing bridge with a new bridge downstream of the existing structure. Replacement of the existing bridge is required due to condition and load restrictions on the existing structure.
 
The replacement structure is a 90m long prestressed concrete bridge with six equal spans supported on driven steel piles into bedrock. Fill embankments are required on both approaches and require ground treatment consisting of Basal Reinforcement and wick drains on the northern embankment to control expected soil settlements.
 
This paper will cover the structural and geotechnical design of the bridge structure and earthworks embankments. The paper will focus on seismic design, soil-structure interaction and how ‘ground squeezing’ effects from settlement of the Northern embankment was accommodated in the design.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Dr Oliver de Lautour is an Associate at Aurecon, New Zealand and leads the NZ bridge team. He has with 14 years’ experience in structural design and is a Chartered Professional Engineer. He has a PhD in Civil Engineering studying Structural Health Monitoring. His background is predominantly in the detailed design of bridge structures in the Australasian and South Pacific regions. His experience includes undertaking complex bridge analysis and design, working collaboratively in multi-disciplinary design teams and bridge aesthetics. He has previously presented at the Small Bridges Conference
 
 
Paul Lunniss
Project Manager
Inner West Council
Alistair Hyde Page
Environmental Engineer
Inner West Council
DIBBLE AVENUE WATERHOLE SLOPE STABILISATION – FORMER BRICK PIT REHABILITATION IN DENSE URBAN ENVIRONMENT
 
In 2017 a landslide occurred at Dibble Avenue Waterhole Marrickville. The waterhole is a flooded former brick pit surrounded by residential properties and a playground. The landslide created a 3 to 4 m high back scarp which was within 3 m of an adjacent three-storey apartment building.
 
Emergency works were carried out with the advice from geo-engineering consultancies to ensure short term stabilisation of the landslip. Further investigations were carried out to develop a concept design to stabilise entire waterhole banks. Ancillary investigations were also carried out to address the management of the local ecology, water quality, heritage items and contamination during construction works.
 
The detailed design for bank stabilisation has been developed which address’s the design factors as well accounting for the residential, constructability, sustainability and funding constraints. Works are expected to start early 2020.
 

BIOGRAPHIES

Paul Lunniss has completed a Master of Engineering and working in Local Government with experience in managing the construction and maintenance of civil infrastructure in both metropolitan Sydney and regional NSW. 
 
Alistair Hyde Page is an environmental engineer working in Local Government with experience in geotechnical engineering and remediating contaminated sites from investigation through to design and construction.
 
 
Peter Routledge
Technical Principal
WSP Opus NEW ZEALAND
THE RAKAIA GORGE BRIDGE DECK REPLACEMENT AND SEISMIC STRENGTHENING
 
The Rakaia Gorge No. 1 Bridge on SH77 is a Category 1 Historic Place constructed circa 1882. The 55m span ‘Bollman-like’ truss is recognised as unique in the world and is also one of the oldest wrought iron bridges in New Zealand.
 
To ensure that this important structure continued to provide a safe and resilient transport route, the New Zealand Transport Agency commissioned WSP Opus to design the deck replacement. The difficult-access conditions and the scaffold required for the deck replacement created an opportunity to undertake seismic strengthening works in parallel.
 
During design there were numerous complexities to be considered associated with the load capacity, heritage significance, safety, seismic resilience and traffic management. One of the innovations on this project was the use of NiuDeck (with steel transoms) as an alternative to traditional hardwood transoms and deck planks.
 
WSP Opus sensitively balanced the conflicting objectives of state highway operations and heritage preservation – refurbishing the deck and providing seismic resilience to this strategically important structure, whilst respecting the high significance of the heritage fabric and successfully preserving the exceptional landmark appearance of the bridge.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Peter Routledge is a Chartered Professional Engineer and a Technical Principal for WSP Opus based in Christchurch, New Zealand. He has 17 years’ experience in the design and asset management of bridges in the UK and New Zealand.
 
 
Raed El Sarraf
Technical Principal – Materials and Corrosion
WSP Opus NEW ZEALAND
Rem Markland
Senior Engineering Technician
WSP Opus NEW ZEALAND
OPTIMISING STEEL BRIDGE PAINTING – FROM INVESTIGATION TO IMPLEMENTATION
 
Regardless of the type of protective coating used and the corrosivity environment it is exposed to, at some point in the life of a steel (and metallic) bridge its' coating system will need to be refurbished.
 
From undertaking a condition assessment to selecting the optimum remediation solution, it is crucial to understand and consider the bridge’s environment and limitations. This includes assessing the type and condition of existing coating (such as presence of a hazardous primer), considering its removal and application of a new coating; access constraints, containment of physical work debris to mitigate its environmental impact, and possible future change of service of the bridge itself.
 
Together these factors dictate the selection of the optimum solution, with the aim in achieving the lowest possible whole of life net present value cost and/or longest possible refurbished coating time to first maintenance.
 
This paper outlines the above circumstances, options and factors, summarising current Australasian/international standards and industry guidance documents, illustrated through a number of case studies. These include improving upon poor durability detailing, such as leaky joints, that once implemented greatly improve the future performance and longevity of the refurbished coating system.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Raed El Sarraff is a Chartered Engineer with over 15 years’ experience in the corrosion prevention and the rehabilitation of existing structures and specifying corrosion protection systems for new structures. He also co-authored several articles, papers and guidance documents related to corrosion prevention and durability design of structural steel in Australasia.
 
 
Rohan McElroy
Principal Structural Engineer
icubed consulting
A SERVICEABILITY ANALYSIS OF PEDESTRIAN INDUCED EXCITATION FON LIGHT-WEIGHT FRP FOOTBRIDGES
 
Over the past 5 years icubed consulting have been developing in-house software and procedures on the excitation performance of Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) pedestrian footbridges. icubed had concerns with pedestrian induced excitation performance due to the lightweight nature of FRP structures.
 
Further research and testing was undertaken for the design and construction of FRP truss footbridges initially spanning 12m to 27m. In the last two years we have developed single span bridges from 30m to 67m long. This process included scale-model testing of truss members and connections, fatigue performance and methods to assess pedestrian induced excitation using spreadsheets and Finite Element software.
 
A pulsating force load was produced using Fourier Transformation equations to replicate the vertical and lateral impact of a footfall load was applied at mid-span of the deck and factored using formulae to evaluate the effect of multiple pedestrians walking in-sync and out-of-sync. A transient solver produced graphs of maximum nodal accelerations under various pedestrian cases which were then compared to acceleration limitations outlined in other literature. icubed discovered that in-sync walking load cases could amplify deck accelerations by a considerable amount. To counter this, truss chords were filled with a low viscosity grout acting as a mass dampener to limit excitation potential. Acceleration data was collected using an Android smartphone to compare theoretical models against actual in-situ performance.
 
icubed have also started looking into dynamic wind excitation of these structures using open-source software openFOAM. We have been using this software to model 2D cross sections of the pedestrian bridges to undertake a sensitivity analysis for the critical wind velocity that may cause the structure to self-excite.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Rohan McElroy is currently the Principal Structural Engineer at icubed consulting based in Brisbane. Rohan has been designing and overseeing construction in the residential, commercial, infrastructure and industrial building industries for the last 10 years. For the past 7 years, he has focused his attention on the design of FRP pedestrian, road, wharf and jetty infrastructure around Australia, New Zealand, UK, Canada, the USA, Fiji and the UAE. Rohan has also co-authored a paper on the world’s first composite FRP and concrete wharf at Pinkenba, Brisbane for the International Federation for Structural Concrete.
 
 
Rupert Noronha - 1
Section Engineer
Morgan Sindall
CONSTRUCTION OF VINES CREEK ROAD BRIDGE
 
Vines Creek Road Bridges is a Transport for Main Roads (TMR) demolition and replacement scheme in Mackay. It comprises two 4 span prestressed concrete deck unit bridges spanning over Vines Creek. Being a gateway for agriculture and manufacturing, the new bridges have a higher mass limit and were built higher than the existing ones to increase flood immunity to the area.
 
This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the two road bridges with a key focus on cast-in-situ piling, driven precast piling, cast-in situ abutments and precast deck erection including the transverse stressing operation.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Rupert Noronha is a chartered structural engineer who graduated from Queensland University of Technology with first class honours. He completed 5 years in design before transitioning into construction where he now works in delivery roles for principal contractors. Rupert has moved around extensively to enhance career opportunities including moving from Brisbane to Sydney at 21 and a FIFO role in Mackay in 2017. He has most recently been living and working in the UK as a section engineer for Morgan Sindall on the Werrington Grade Separation Project.
 
 
 
Rupert Noronha - 2
Section Engineer
Morgan Sindall
CONSTRUCTION OF STAMFORD RAIL UNDERBRIDGE - UNITED KINGDOM
 
Stamford Rail Underbridge is a single span concrete integral bridge with ballasted track form required as part of the Werrington Grade Separation Project in the UK. It was constructed in order to facilitate plant and operative access into the wideway between the existing Stamford Lines and proposed Stamford slewed lines. The bridge consists of precast deck beams with reinforced concrete abutments and deck infill.
 
This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the rail underbridge from the contractor's perspective.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Rupert Noronha is a chartered structural engineer who graduated from Queensland University of Technology with first class honours. He completed 5 years in design before transitioning into construction where he now works in delivery roles for principal contractors. Rupert has moved around extensively to enhance career opportunities including moving from Brisbane to Sydney at 21 and a FIFO role in Mackay in 2017. He has most recently been living and working in the UK as a section engineer for Morgan Sindall on the Werrington Grade Separation Project.
 
 
 
Rupert Noronha - 3
Section Engineer
Morgan Sindall
CONSTRUCTION OF COCK LANE FOOTBRIDGE - UNITED KINGDOM
 
Cock Lane Footbridge is a 50m single span steel truss pedestrian bridge required as part of the Werrington Grade Separation Project in the UK.
 
The new bridge was constructed in order to span over the additional rail lines built as part of the project.
 
This presentation covers the full construction sequence of the new footbridge including demolition of the existing bridge and temporary works. Construction of the new footbridge was in a highly constrained environment requiring detailed planning around overhead rail lines, 132kV power lines and a proposed new cast-in-situ concrete culvert.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Rupert Noronha is a chartered structural engineer who graduated from Queensland University of Technology with first class honours. He completed 5 years in design before transitioning into construction where he now works in delivery roles for principal contractors. Rupert has moved around extensively to enhance career opportunities including moving from Brisbane to Sydney at 21 and a FIFO role in Mackay in 2017. He has most recently been living and working in the UK as a section engineer for Morgan Sindall on the Werrington Grade Separation Project.
 
 
 
Sam Mathankar
Asset Manager Structures
Main Roads Western Australia
Arash Groban
Principal Bridge Engineer
AECOM 
Dr Liam Holloway
Managing Director
MEnD Consulting
LEVEL 3 INSPECTION AND LOAD RATING OF BRIDGE 1011 HALF JOINTS
 
Bridge 1011 in Perth, Western Australia, is one of the few bridges with half joints in the state that utilise a half joint and is considered an strategic asset for Main Roads Western Australia (MRWA).
 
Designed and built in the late 1960’s, Bridge 1011 carries high traffic volumes from the Mitchell Freeway, one of the key arterial roadways in Perth, with half joints supporting a “drop-in” span over passenger railway line which limits the access to the joints. The bridge comprises post-tensioned concrete I-girders with transverse beams at the ends with half joints to support adjacent spans on bearings. Due to the bifurcation of diverging lanes on the Freeway, the girders in the end deck are not supported along the centroid of the girders of the adjacent span, creating an indirect load path along the half joint support.
 
The key concerns with these types of joints is that they have no redundancy and are typically hidden from close inspection, meaning that deterioration cannot be effectively monitored, and failure can be sudden.
 
Whilst there are expansion joint seals located above the joints, these often fail over time and allow seepage through to the half joint and potentially accelerate chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement at a critical section.
 
This paper presents the work undertaken to investigate and load rate the half joints on Bridge 1011 which involved Level 3 investigative drilling, coring and testing of the bridge along with strut and tie analysis of the half joints to determine the current load carrying capacity of the bridge.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Sam Mathankar has 22 years’ experience in roads and civil infrastructure Industry which includes asset management, design management, design co-ordination, construction, contract and project management. He has worked for the various Government Transport Authorities, Local Government, international contractors and engineering consultants. Sam has worked and managed teams in projects that planned, designed, built and maintained transport infrastructure in Australia and overseas and has experience in leading multidisciplinary teams from feasibility to construction stages for various new built, re-alignments and widening /upgrade projects.
 
Liam Holloway’s unique skills and expertise as a materials engineer specialising in durability and corrosion, traverse key infrastructure sectors including marine, mining, defence and energy. Liam completed his PhD in the field of corrosion inhibition and monitoring for reinforced concrete structures at Monash University. Following this he has worked in both the consulting and contracting fields with a focus on asset condition assessment, remediation and maintenance. 
 
Scott Henderson
Structural Engineer
Jacobs
UTILISING TABLET BASED SOFTWARE TO INCREASE SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY IN BRIDGE INSPECTIONS
 
Bridge engineers and asset owners frequently undertake condition assessments of bridges and culverts. The condition assessment inspections undertaken in the field are usually time constrained due to the infrequent availability of road closures or railway possessions. The inspectors undertaking the work typically require: pen and paper to record observations; a handheld GPS to record locations; a camera; and a range of documents for reference. Consequently, there is a challenge as to how to record the information in the field in a safe, efficient and repeatable manner that saves time and increases data quality.
 
Leveraging new advancements in technology, Jacobs has developed a tablet-based software called jForms as its standard solution for streamlining data capture in the field. jForms is a customisable electronic tool that allows data to be recorded quickly and easily in the field using predefined forms and dropdown lists. The information collected is synchronised to a cloud-based SQL database in real time. All information collected using jForms can be fully integrated into an asset’s building information model (BIM); or can automatically be output into reports configured to any specification.
 
This paper presents two case studies where jForms has been used successfully in Australia to undertake numerous bridge condition assessments.
 
BIOGRAPHY
 
Scott Henderson is a Structural Engineer for Jacobs’ Sydney office. Scott has over 8 years’ experience in the design of bridge structures, underground structures, industrial structures and maritime structures. Scott has worked on a range of bridge projects including: detailed designs for widening and strengthening bridges; load ratings and inspections.
 
 
Tanmay Vegad
Structural Engineer
Hatch
Matt Proitsis
Principal Structural Engineer
Hatch
INNOVATIONS IN BRIDGE DESIGNS INCLUDING BARRIERS, HANDRAILS AND STRENGTHENING OF EXISTING BRIDGES TO NEW CODE REQUIREMENTS – WESTERN ROADS UPGRADE PROJECT IN MELBOURNE
 
Hatch, in Joint Venture with Pitt&Sherry (HPSJV), was engaged to deliver the civil and structural design of four out of the eight capital works packages forming part of the $1.8B Western Roads Upgrade Project in Melbourne, Victoria. Two of these packages were delivered for Winslow Infrastructure and included two new road bridges, a bridge widening, two new SUP bridges in addition to a range of barriers, large culverts and retaining walls.
 
This paper will highlight some of the key challenges encountered during the design and construction of various bridges with a focus on the innovative and practical design solutions used to resolve them. This will include discussion of the design of new bridge barriers and upgrades of existing barriers for considerably higher barrier loads to AS5100:2017, design and construction considerations for bridge widenings, as well as covering how designs were adapted to align with optimal construction sequencing; minimise temporary works; and improve construction safety provisions.
 
The paper will also discuss some implications of more stringent requirements for shared user path handrail designs and provisions for bridge bearing restraints.
 
BIOGRAPHIES
 
Tanmay Vegad is a Structural Engineer with over six years of experience in many facets of structural engineering, from design phase to delivery of structural design packages, inspections and conducting investigations on a multitude of mid to large scale projects across Australia. He has worked on bridge designs in several major projects across Australia including Mernda Rail Extension Project, Western Roads Upgrade Project and West Gate Tunnel Project (Temporary Works).
 
Matt Proitsis is a Principal Structural Engineer based in Hatch’s Melbourne office. He has over eighteen years of experience on road bridges, rail bridges, pedestrian bridges, cut-and-cover tunnels, deep shafts/major retention systems and temporary works design. He has extensive technical experience in Victorian based transport infrastructure projects, and has worked on projects elsewhere in Australia, Canada, the USA and the UK. Matt was the Structures Design Lead for of HPSJV’s four capital works projects forming part of the Western Roads Upgrade project and was intimately involved in the technical design development of all structures and co-ordination with construction requirements.