8th Australian Small Bridges Conference
 
 
Adam Walmsley
BIM Manager
BG&E
STOP, COLLABORATE AND LISTEN – HOW DIGITAL ENGINEERING WILL CHANGE THE WAY WE WORK TOGETHER TO DESIGN AND DELIVER PROJECTS

Our industry is witnessing its biggest change since CAD was introduced to our workflows. The Digital Engineering process and all it encompasses is shifting the focus from hand sketches, 2D CAD detailing and red pen to an all engrossing and sometimes daunting 3D, 4D and 5D digital world. 

This presentation, from the perspective of the design team, will give an insight into how we can benefit from making the 3D model the central collaborative focus point on small bridge projects while also showing how that same model and its intelligent data can be reused by other disciplines, the construction team and the asset owner. As we know, there are increased financial and time pressures on projects in today’s climate, forcing our teams to work smaller, smarter and more efficiently together than ever before. The development of an intelligent bridge model can influence design, increase drawing accuracy, reduce human error and identify clashes before site while also including contingency for design changes with minimal rework. 

BIOGRAPHY

Adam Walmsley is their Digital Engineering Manager with 10 years’ experience leading a range of projects including Bridges, Specialist Structures, High-Rise and Residential Structures and overseeing the development of internal Digital Engineering processes.
 
Adriaan Kok
Senior Designer and Project Manager
ipv Delft, THE NETHERLANDS
CASE STUDY: THE HOVENRING (40 Minutes)

An in depth presentation about the Hovenring which will provide an overview of how such a project, or a complex bridge project in general, can be approached. The approach used at the Hovenring project also formed the basis for the Dutch design manual for bicycle and pedestrian bridges. The complexity of this project makes it a good example to illustrate the structure of the design manual for bicycle and pedestrian bridges and our approach of bridge projects. 



The presentation will include:
- the why of the project
- the funding of the project 
- the thorough analysis of the requirements 
- the involvement and collaboration of all disciplines and stakeholders
- how engineers and designers co-operated in the process 
- the logic of the design 
- the modularity of the design
- design for maintenance
- cost estimation 
- collision loads and other loads - vibrations: predictions, preparing for unpredictable cable vibrations, in advance proposed solutions, occurred vibrations and final solutions - cable anchorage and inspection
- the lighting design (functional and architectural)
- the construction phase (how the Hovenring was built and why it is built that way) - lessons learned. 


THE DESIGN OF BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN BRIDGES (90 minutes)

Several bicycle and pedestrian bridge projects (topical and older) will be presented which illustrate all kinds of possible solutions for bicycle and pedestrian bridges in different situation s with variable complexity. The goal of this presentation is to pass on detailed and practical knowledge about bridge solutions we design.

The presentation will start with a short introduction of the most important requirements for a bicycle and pedestrian bridge like width, grade, ramp alignment and height of the railing and some lessons learned from the Hovenring like the awareness of the context and modular design. And will then illustrate how these basics are applied in bridges in all kind of situations. 

Aspects to be be presented: 
- bicycle and pedestrians ramps in a constrained context. 
- affordable ramps with a complex route through modularity 
- finding a good alignment for a ramp using parametric software
- crossing a road 
- why sometimes the collision load can be reduced in Europe
- bridges for floodplains
- the design of bridges that can be completely flooded by the sea or a river
- smart contract writing
- how smart contract writing can lead to the use of advanced new materials and reduction of needed maintenance
- new materials and small bridges made of composite, with composite parts and new types of concrete 
- movable bridges cost efficient small movable bridge types for spans up to 26 meters
- using the context how to make use of the context for building a bridge.
- floating bridges
- Cost efficiency is very important in our designs so will be part of all the topics. 

BIOGRAPHY 

Adriaan Kok has been working as designer and project manager at Dutch bridge design office ipv Delft for the past 16 years. He is a very experienced bridge designer, with a focus on bicycle bridges and bicycle infrastructure related research and feasibility studies. He has been working on countless projects, many of which were multi-disciplinary, ranging from iconic bicycle bridges such as the internationally renowned Hovenring circular bridge in Eindhoven to moveable bridges, aqueducts and whole families of bridges. In addition, he has also worked on several street furniture design projects, such as underground waste collectors and signage to improve child safety in public space.

Adriaan Kok has an MSc in Industrial Design Engineering from Delft University of Technology.
 
Alireza Chaboki
Principal Engineer - Structures
V/Line
MAINTENANCE OF BURIED CORRUGATED STEEL BRIDGES IN REGIONAL VICTORIAN RAILWAY

This paper presents the maintenance strategy of Buried Corrugated steel bridges and culverts (ARMCO pipes) on the V/line Railway Network, focusing on their maintenance. Inspection, assessment, durability evaluation and mitigation of defective ones are the main maintenance aspect these buries pipes restricting railway axle loads.

There are more than 100 buried corrugated steel bridges and culverts (ARMCO pipes) within V/line network which their diameters vary from 5.5 meters to 600 mm. This type of structure is a much less expensive option compared to other forms of structures and they have been used to replace the old timber bridges over creeks and rivers within the Victorian railway network in 1960’s and 70’s.

Having a thin metal wall that comes in contact with water and saturated soil, vulnerable and sacrificial thin galvanization layer, and means that it has corrosion potential which can significantly reduce a structure’s design life.

Severe Corrosion and section loss, excessive deformation, invert damages observed recently in several locations which show their effective lifetime is now about to finish. To manage the operation risks and increase the reliability of the structural integrity, a comprehensive plan for these assets has been considered.

This maintenance program consists of (i) more frequents detailed inspection (ii) improve the inspection quality (iii) mitigation options including full lining and invert lining.

Also, the effect of full lining and invert lining on the performance of these flexible pipes has been investigated and deformation and flexural moments have been assessed before and after lining.

BIOGRAPHY

Alireza Chaboki is Principal Engineer - Structures based at V/line head office-Melbourne. For the past 2 and half years, he has been working with Network engineering group to maintain and renew a broad range of railway infrastructures including bridges, culverts, tunnels stations and signalling structures. He holds Bachelors, Masters and PhD degrees in Structural Engineering and has more than 17 years’ experience in infrastructure sector as the designer, design manager and engineer in both greenfield and brownfield area. In addition, he has worked with a couple of universities as a part time lecturer.
 
Amir Holakoo
Structural Engineer
KBR
Ranjan Weeraratne 
Principal Structural Engineer
KBR
Kugan Kugathasan 
Principal Structural Engineer
KBR
SHEET PILE RETAINING WALLS ADJACENT BRIDGES – DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION IN A BROWN FIELDS ENVIRONMENT 

This paper describes the design and construction of sheet pile retaining walls as a permanent solution for the soil-retaining structure adjacent bridges. Amongst different types of retaining walls such as cantilevered concrete walls and cantilevered concrete piles, sheet piles are favourable due to their fast construction, light weight, high resistance to driving stresses, and long service life above and below water table. In addition, in a brown field environment where challenges include dealing with live rail environment, existing services, and operational roads and nearby residents adjacent the work area, sheet piles possess several advantages over other type of retaining walls. 

The current paper also outlines a case study of a recently completed retaining wall project in Melbourne. The sheet piled wall was installed as a part of the earth retaining structures for level crossings removal project in Bentleigh and McKinnon Stations. Furthermore, The basis of the design including corrosion allowance and stray current, staged construction, temporary propping and support to base slab uplift due to water pressure will be discussed. Construction of this type of retaining walls by two different sheet piling installation methods and the main advantages and disadvantages of each system will also be highlighted. Key words: infrastructure, bridges, retaining walls, steel sheet piling, earth structures.

BIOGRAPHIES

Amir Holakoo is a Structural Engineer at KBR.  Amir joined KBR on 2016 and has more than 9 years’ experience in design and analysis of bridge structures. He has been involved in design of different types of bridges and relevant structures.

Ranjan Weeraratne is a Principal Structural Engineer at KBR and Kugan Kugathasan is a Principal Structural Engineer at KBR. Ranjan and Kugan have more than 25 years’ experience in infrastructure design.


 
An Nguyen
Bridge Engineer
Aurecon
Co-author Dr. Kabir Patoary
Principal Engineer
GHD 
EXISTING BULLA ROAD NORTH ABUTMENT MODIFICATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN 

The CityLink Tulla Widening-Bulla Road to Power Street project incorporates additional lanes and other measures to improve the flow of traffic across approximately 19 kilometres of freeway. As part of the project, existing Bulla Road Bridge north abutment require modification to accommodate two additional traffic lanes between Pier No. 1 and North Abutment. The modification involves removing the existing spill through batter in front of the north abutment and removing a section of the spread footing and buttress wall.

In order to provide the vertical support for the existing bridge abutment, new 550mm thick reinforced concrete blade wall and 150mm soil nail wall are proposed between the existing footing and abutment sill beam.  To provide lateral retention against soil pressures and surcharge, ground retention will be achieved using a combination of soil nails and rock bolts. Construction sequence analysis, excavation staging and continuous monitoring during excavation is critical so that a safe construction methodology can be developed to maintain the integrity and functionality of the existing bridge under live traffic.

This paper presents the design and construction challenges encountered by the project team for modification of the existing Bulla Road North Abutment under the live traffic. The method of excavation of the existing batter slope, demolition part of the existing abutment footing, abutment movement monitoring and response measures, and construction of new abutment wall, soil nail and rock bolt walls are also presented. 

BIOGRAPHY

An Nguyen is a bridge engineer, working for Aurecon Melbourne. He is passionate about communities and working as a bridge engineer in many transport projects is a great way to contribute to the communities while enjoying and exploring the work he likes.
 
Andrew Sonnenberg
National Bridge Engineering Manager
Pitt&Sherry
NETWORK WIDE ASSESSMENT FOR PERMIT VEHICLES 

Currently most asset owners understand what structures they own, where they are located and what condition they are in. What is less understood is the capacity of the structures to cope with modern vehicles and permit vehicles. Over the last 100 years the loading on vehicles has increased. Typically the first vehicle bridges were designed for only 10 to 15 tonnes. The road network now often carries loads in excess of 45 tonnes as standard practice and much higher loads under permit. The increase in loading places some asset owners with the risk of their structures becoming overloaded causing damage to the structures and the liability for injuries to road users. 

To manage the risk of structural failure road authorities, such as Councils, need to understand the design capacity of their structures and provide appropriate controls. The authorities also are responsible for reviewing heavy vehicle permit applications sent to them by the National Heavy Vehicle regulator and need to decide on what access they permit to their network. 

Pitt&Sherry has developed a tool that can be used for bridge assessment which stores the relevant load capacity information and enables the assessment of permits with complicated axles spacing’s and masses. The tool brings together a range of information to make the task quicker and more reliable. 

BIOGRAPHY

Dr Andrew Sonnenberg has over 15 years’ experience in the design of road and bridge projects in Australia. His work in both the public and the private sectors has given him a sound understanding of the complexities of asset management and the skills to successfully project manage multidisciplinary projects through to completion. His practical experience is reinforced by a strong theoretical background. He has an MBA, and a PhD obtained from the study of the shear strength assessment of reinforced concrete bridge beams. The research was motivated by a need to understand the capacity of reinforced concrete bridge beams that do not comply with current design standards. As national bridge engineering manager, Andrew oversees the company’s bridge network across the states, and has a deep understanding of Australia’s best practices when it comes to bridge design, assessment and management.
 
Andrew Young
Engineering Investigations Manager
Hatch
SPECIAL INVESTIGATION OF THE AVON RIVER RAIL BRIDGE

The Avon River Bridge is a 59-span structure, managed as two separate structures, located on the V/Line operated Bairnsdale line starting at chainage 221.003 km. The two separate structures are identified as the Approach Spans, starting at chainage 221.003 km, and the Main Spans, from Chainage 221.205 km.

The approach spans were originally formed with four timber girders spanning between the timber piers with transversely laid deck planks. Since the original construction, a significant portion of the approach spans have been strengthened with the placement of steel girders. Each timber pier comprises two timber crossheads, which are supported on four braced timber piles; two inner vertical piles and two external raked piles. The girders are supported on the crossheads via timber bearing blocks.

The main spans are composed of two separate structural details. Spans between pier 117 and 124 are formed with two steel half-through girders with a steel trough deck, which includes a suspended span within span 122. Spans between pier 124 and 130 are formed with a similar construction but using wrought iron as the primary structural material. The substructure of the main spans is also formed with two separate structural details. Piers 117 to 124 are monolithic concrete piers encased with masonry. Piers 124 to 130 are formed with eight vertical timber piles with longitudinal and lateral bracing.

Nuttall Engineering Consultants (Nuttall) were engaged by V/Line to undertake a special investigation of the Avon River Bridge in Stratford. An engineering level inspection and structural assessment were completed to identify the current condition and load carrying capacity of the structure and subsequent recommendations provided for future asset management requirements.

Over the course of the investigation, elements and defects were identified that instigated further works to include the Dye Penetrant Testing, installation of markers and a baseline of settlement monitoring, and the upgrade of the timber boring to utilise a resistograph. The full scope of services delivered comprises:
  • Engineering inspection of all components 
  • Resistograph testing of V/Line directed timber piles 
  • NDT dye penetrant testing of the drop span connection 
  • Deflection testing of agreed selected elements on timber approach spans
    Installation of markers and baseline of settlement monitoring
    Scour survey
  • Feature survey and preparation of ‘as-built’ drawings
  • Load rating of structure 
  • Preparation of a schedule of works to maintain the desired level of service. 
The investigation recommendations included repairs to multiple timber elements, the connection of the suspended span, replacement of a bearing, repair of cracked steel bracing and repairs to locally buckled girder flanges. An ongoing monitoring program was also recommended to ensure several elements identified as high risk areas were regularly inspected for detrimental progression of defects.

BIOGRAPHY

Andrew is a Structural Engineer with over 4 years of experience in the engineering inspection, design, assessment and management of various types of rail, road and maritime infrastructure. He is currently responsible for a team of engineers who primarily complete inspections, assessment and design of rail and road assets for various clients throughout Australia.
 
Anthony Cheung
Senior Structural Engineer
Arcadis
Sleiman Mikhael
Associate Technical Director—Civil Structures
Arcadis
Yanan Yang
Senior Engineer - Structural and Civil
Arcadis
CHALLENGES AND INNOVATION - SOLUTIONS IN THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF OVER BRIDGES IN THE LEVEL CROSSING REMOVAL PROJECT 

The Victorian Government is committed to remove 50 level crossings by 2022, with at least 20 of them to be completed by 2018. These level crossings are the most dangerous crossings around Melbourne area. The removal of these crossings is expected to deliver significant safety improvements to drivers and pedestrians and improve travel around Melbourne. This paper addresses the challenges and issues related the four level crossing removals at Main Road, Furlong Road, Blackburn Road and Heatherdale Road, particularly the Rail Underpass Bridges constructed at Blackburn and Heatherdale sites.

Both bridges are located in densely populated suburbs. The project sites are closely constrained by residential houses and commercial buildings. Furthermore, numerous Utility services were required to be retained or re-installed. The Project also involves the construction of new station structures and piled or soil nailed retaining walls along the railway corridor, all of which must be completed in a short rail occupation time. Various methods and innovation techniques were used throughout the design and construction to respond to these challenges. This paper details the main issues and innovations techniques used on this project which could be an example and developed further for similar future projects. - St Albans, Blackburn and Heatherdale

BIOGRAPHIES 

Anthony Cheung joined Arcadis in 2005. During this period, he has undertaken the design, assessment and proof engineering of various types of highway structures, including vehicular flyovers, railway bridges, and pedestrian bridges using steel, timber and reinforced prestressed concrete constructions. Anthony has designed numerous civil structures for transport infrastructure projects in Victoria; these projects include the M80 Ring Road upgrade, M1 West Gate Freeway upgrade, EastLink Tollway Project, South Gippsland Highway upgrade from Loch to Bena, Bayles Bridges upgrade, Hallam Road upgrade. 

Sleiman Mikhael has over 25 years’ experience in the design of structural engineering projects over Australia and the Middle East. His skills include design and independent review of a variety of steel and concrete, structures as diverse as the existing viaduct widening of the West Gate Freeway, bridges on the Western Ring Road (Tullamarine – Sydney Rd), Pakenham bypass (3), Calder freeway, and Don Interchange post tensioned 2-span concrete box girder in Tasmania. Sleiman was also responsible for the strengthening design of the Arden and Macaulay Road Bridges using carbon fibre (City of Melbourne), and also the design of a number of new rail bridges to replace existing bridges for Metro Trains Melbourne (MTM) along the Hoddle Street corridor. 

Yanan Yang has over 17 years of bridge engineering experience including research, designing and assessing bridges (and other structures).
 
Brian Finegan
Principal Structural Engineer
AECOM
Shunqing Cai 
Principal Engineer (Structural) 
Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads 
Torill Pape 
Associate Director – Asset Management: Structures
AECOM

CONSIDERATIONS IN PREPARING PRESERVATION STRATEGY OPTIONS FOR DETERIORATING AND AGING BRIDGES

A diverse range of infrastructure currently exists in Australia, covering sectors such as transport, energy, water and communications, with bridges providing a key role in this network.  There is increasing pressure to operate and maintain these structures in an optimal fashion to ensure its long-term functionality and accessibility without compromising on public safety for the duration of its serviceable life.  However, asset owners and managers face the challenges of an increasing asset age profile and a backlog of existing maintenance and rehabilitation works in an environment of budget restrictions.  Additional issues relating to condition deterioration and load deficiencies require further consideration.

This paper presents a recent study carried out by the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads which explored these issues in the management a key bridge in the state’s north. The bridge which has steel girders with a composite RC slab was noted to be in poor condition, and TMR sought advice on various preservation strategies that were available, taking into account technical, economic and social influences.  

The paper shares insights on the history of the bridge, the preservation options required, how the various strategies were approached and developed, and what considerations were explored, including external and life-cycle management issues, the influence of condition and capacity, and deterioration over time. The paper concludes with observations and key messages that could be used to assist in the development of similar strategies for aging bridges affected by condition issues. 

BIOGRAPHY

Brian Finegan is a Principal, Structural Engineer with AECOM and has over 25 years’ experience in the area of structural asset management and condition appraisal in both the UK and Australia. He has worked in public and private sectors and understands the importance of sound asset management strategies and aligning condition with structural significance. Brian has and undertaken and overseen the inspection of a large number of highway structures for various clients including the Highways Agency and Transurban. Through previous roles with TMR, Brian also has a sound understanding of the financial impacts of bridge maintenance works and the importance of effective strategic planning..
 
Brodie Chan
Civil Engineer – Materials Technology Group
GHD
PHOTOGRAMMETRIC MODELLING FOR BRIDGE INSPECTION AND REMEDIATION

With a large percentage of bridge infrastructure throughout the east coast of Australia approaching a point of major intervention, there is increasing importance upon accurately identifying the current condition of bridge assets to ensure the accurate scoping of repairs. With the industry shifting towards more automated and intelligent processes, photogrammetric modelling has been introduced as a technology that provides significant opportunity to alter how bridge remediation contracts are undertaken. The use of modelling-based applications enables accurate information about the current condition of a structure to be maintained as part of contractual documentation to reduce the risk of variations and ensure greater management of information throughout the project lifecycle. 

This paper aims to provide a basis for the integration of photogrammetric modelling into current bridge inspection and remediation projects and to highlight the potential of the technology.  

BIOGRAPHY 

Brodie Chan is a Civil Engineer working within the Bridge, Marine and Materials Technology Team of GHD, focusing on the investigation and repair of structures. Through his time at GHD, Brodie has worked with numerous clients from both the private and public sectors to undertake durability investigations and deliver sustainable remedial design solutions.
 
Chris Bridges
Technical Principal - Geotechnical
SMEC
DESIGN OF SOIL NAILED STRUCTURES IN ACCORDANCE WITH AS4678-2002

Soil nailing is a commonly used method for providing temporary support or permanent solutions around existing abutments. Although the Australian Standard covers soil nailed walls through an informative, designers use a variety of standards from the UK, USA and elsewhere as the guidance in the Australian Standard is limited. This paper presents a methodology based on the Australian Standard and compares it against overseas standards.

BIOGRAPHY

Dr Chris Bridges has worked on some of Southeast Queensland’s most complex and challenging road projects including Brisbane’s Airport Link Project, where he supervised the design and construction of the largest soil nailed excavation in Australia (18m deep).

On the Gateway Upgrade Project he designed approximately 40 retaining structures and managed many of the temporary works designs and on the Inner Northern Busway Queens St to Upper Roma St, Chris led the geotechnical team undertaking the design and construction of the works in the Brisbane CBD.
 
Chris Dowding
Director - Structures Group
TOD Consulting
Alan Bird
Managing Director
Marine & Civil Maintenance 
EXTENDING THE LIFE OF A COASTAL BRIDGE AFFECTED BY CHLORIDES AND ASR

Munna Point Bridge is one of only two routes to reach Noosa’s primary tourism attractions of Hastings Street, Main Beach, and Noosa National Park. More than 1.8 million trips in each direction are made across the 106 metre bridge every year, by tourists and locals. It is a critical piece of infrastructure, facilitating Noosa’s economy as a lifestyle and tourism destination. 

The bridge was completed in the late 1970s. Large cracks appeared in the precast concrete piles and cast-insitu pile caps during the 1990s. Early investigators, from Queensland’s Department of Transport and Main Roads, identified the cause as alkali silica reaction (ASR) and chloride attack. 

ASR is complex and worldwide best practice is to mitigate ASR problems, rather than solve them. Later consultants concluded that the service life of the bridge would end in 2013, and drafted a $6 to 8 million plan to replace the full substructure. 

Noosa Shire Council and TOD Consulting’s engineers investigated the condition of the pile-prestressed-strands and pile-cap-steel-reinforcement, in 2014. They determined that remediation was viable. They jointly prepared a performance specification for a design and construct contract, with the aim of extending the service life of the bridge by fifty years. The successful Contractor, Marine & Civil Maintenance, with its structural and durability consultants, achieved the project brief in 2015 for less than $3 million. 

This paper describes the investigation and assessment of the options available to the bridge owner and the subsequent design and construction of the works. The works included structural encasement of the piles and pile caps; and durability enhancement with an impressed-current cathodic protection system and specialist coatings. Impact on local users of the road and waterway was minimised. 

BIOGRAPHIES

Chris Dowding works with Local Government asset managers, who have the challenge of managing ageing infrastructure & facilities. Chris’ experience with design, construction and maintenance of diverse infrastructure helps him to look at problems from different perspectives. As a former designer of mining structures, he learnt the benefit of applying risk to structures that don’t fit into “the box”.

Alan Bird is Managing Director of Marine and Civil Maintenance Pty Ltd, a contracting company which specializes in the repair and protection of large concrete infrastructure in marine environments throughout Australia. Alan is a Chartered Civil Engineer with a background in civil construction in the UK and New Zealand. Since 1987, he has specialized in remedial engineering and he founded MCM in 2001
 
Chris Halpin
Associate - Melbourne Infrastructure Team (Bridges)
Aurecon
Kabir Patoary
Principal Engineer
GHD
CITYLINK TULLA WIDENING – WIDENING OF EXISTING MOONEE PONDS CREEK BRIDGES

As part of the CityLink Tulla project, widening was undertaken to accommodate additional traffic lanes to a number of existing structures including four separate bridge crossings over the Moonee Ponds Creek. Given the nature of the widening, a key design consideration was connection of the widened superstructures to the existing superstructures. Connection to the existing structures was made by either hydro demolition of existing deck slab with extension of existing reinforcement, or saw cutting the existing deck slab and installation of starter bars using epoxy. 

To ensure the structural integrity of the new widening works and adjacent existing structure, deck construction was undertaken in two separate stages using a separate stich pour. The stitch pour provided the longitudinal and lateral connection between the existing and widened decks, transferring the effects of live load, differential shrinkage, any effects due to differential settlement between the existing and proposed structure and barrier impact load. Time delays between the two pour stages minimised load transfer to the existing deck due to differential shrinkage and creep effects in the main deck pour and minimise impacts on traffic speed and lane closures during the works. 

Traffic lane configuration were analysed and traffic limitations determined to ensure relative deflections were controlled so as to ensure bonding of stitch reinforcement was ensured and strength and crack control requirements were achieved at all stages of the works. Concrete mix designs were determined and reinforcement detailed with particular consideration of the staged approach. This paper will present the design and construction challenges associated with this key aspect of the structural widening works.

BIOGRAPHY

Chris is a Senior Bridge Engineer and has been a part of the Aurecon Bridges team for nine years, working on various infrastructure projects, some including CityLink-Tullamarine Freeway Project, Warragul Rail Precinct and Peninsula Link Freeway in Melbourne and Pacific and Oxley Highways in Sydney. Chris recently returned from two years in Aurecon’s Bangkok office where he led teams to deliver project in various countries.
 
Colin Morrow
Senior Bridge Engineer
Aurecon
DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BRIDGE STRUCTURES TO MITIGATE AGAINST STRAY CURRENT CORROSION WITHIN A RAIL CORRIDOR

As rail infrastructure in urban environments is upgraded and developed, there is a growing requirement to provide grade-separated rail crossings, where there is increased rail-structure interaction.

In rail crossings, high voltage direct-current overhead traction systems can result in a portion of the return current entering the soil as an alternative return path toward the electrical substation. This return current, known as “stray current”, can subsequently be picked up by structural elements in contact with the earth. 

Electrolysis corrosion occurs where this current is discharged from a reinforced concrete element and can lead to rapid steel section loss. The risk of stray-current electrolysis corrosion occurring within bridge and retaining wall structures can be mitigated through the use of various strategies. 

The discussed strategies in this paper utilise both the segregation of structures and the electrical isolation of bridge abutments and retaining structures from the surrounding soil in order to limit stray current pickup and discharge. The isolation of overhead wire structures from road and pedestrian bridges is also a key consideration of the mitigation strategy. 

These mitigation measures are presented in the context of a recently completed rail grade separation in Melbourne. 

BIOGRAPHY

Colin has 9 years' experience in bridge design, in both leadership and design roles, on a wide range of major structures from feasibility studies to site supervision. Recently, Colin has been heavily involved in rail projects and has gained experience in the design and construction of civil structures and bridges within rail corridors.
 
Dan Tingley
Senior Engineer
Wood Research and Development - USA/ CANADA
ADVANCED RESTORATION METHODS FOR OLD AUSTRALIAN HARDWOOD TIMBER BRIDGES – ELDERSLIE ROAD BRIDGE TASMANIA 

This presentation provides and overview of a construction project to upgrade an existing timber bridge which formed part of a road network around the town of Brighton, some 26 km north of Hobart via the Brooker Highway and Midland Highway. 

Pitt & Sherry (P&S) Hobart office provides Brighton Council with bridge assessments and they determined that Elderslie Road Bridge just out of Brighton was an ideal candidate for restoring instead of replacing, due to the excellent condition of the concrete deck on the bridge. The bridge deck comprises timber transverse planks overlain by a cast-in-situ reinforced concrete wearing course. This composite deck is supported by a timber log pile substructure and a timber log girder and corbel superstructure. 

Through business networks, Wood Research and Development (WRD) were retained by P&S to conduct a comprehensive NDT inspection and prepare a Level 2 Bridge Condition Report on the Elderslie Road Bridge at Brighton. Despite Brighton Council holding records indicating that the bridge should be replaced in 2015/16, the apparent condition of the concrete overlay and many of the substructure elements belied this replacement program schedule. 

Upon completion of the inspection and analysis report, WRD reported that the bridge contained approximately 52 elemental defects which were all repairable. The Engineers Estimate for the implementation of the recommended works was approximately 33% of the $1.5m capital budget estimate allowed by Brighton Council in its forward capital works budget. 

Brighton Council implemented the report recommendations. The the successful contractor conducted all of the upgrade works under traffic which meant that the local community and the road network were not greatly impacted by the restoration and upgrade works. Roadwork speed zones were implemented for the duration of the project and a lane closure was in place for approximately 10 days to provide for worker safety. By extending the useful lifetime of the existing timber bridge significant costs where saved while also preserving the heritage of the local community 

This presentation will elaborate further on the key issues of restoring and strengthening timber bridges on the local road network. 

BIOGRAPHY 

Dr. Dan Tingley graduated from University of New Brunswick with a B. Sc. F.E. and later a M.Sc.C.E.. Following this in the 90’s Tingley finished his Ph.D. in wood technology and structural engineering at Oregon State University.

He has worked in the wood products field for 40 years. He currently serves as senior engineer for Wood Research and Development and Advanced Research and Development and makes his base in Portland, Oregon. Tingley holds over 40 patents worldwide and has over 125 referred and non-referred publications. He specializes in timber structures design and restoration with a significant interest in timber bridges. He is currently acting as senior engineer providing oversight on 20 timber bridge restoration projects worldwide. 

 
Daniel Fryirs
Bridge Engineer
BG&E
Sam Millie 
Bridge Works Manager – Asset Maintenance
RMS NSW
LOAD TRANSFER SEQUENCING FOR MAINTENANCE OF LIFT SPAN BRIDGES

The Nyah Lift Span Bridge and the Murrabit Lift Span Bridge are two lift span structures in regional NSW, maintained and operated by RMS. They represent two of the remaining operational lifting bridges from the early-mid 20th Century and act as critical transport links between townships along the Murray River.

BG&E has completed the temporary works design and construction methodology for the remediation of the two bridges. The works included the design of a load transfer mechanism to support 40 tonne counterweights so that the aged cables linking the counterweights to the lift span could be replaced. Works were designed to allow limited traffic on the structure to reduce impact on the local community, and to minimise the structural / aesthetic impact on the historic structures. Due to geometric constraints the same methodology was not applicable to both bridges and required innovative thinking to reduce obstruction of the carriageway while maintaining existing load paths where possible. This paper will discuss the load transfer sequencing used for the two bridges. 

BIOGRAPHY

Daniel has several years’ experience in bridge and construction methodology design. Daniel has worked on major infrastructure projects such as the Velloway in Brisbane and more recently the Pacific Highway Upgrade far north NSW. Daniel has also been involved in the design of major temporary components used in the construction of Incrementally Launched Bridges and bridge remediation projects
 
David Andrews
Senior Project Development Manager
Roads and Maritime Services
COUNTRY BRIDGE SOLUTIONS 

Local councils face the growing challenge, as road authorities, of maintaining and eventually replacing aging bridges on Regional and Local roads. The NSW Government has developed Country Bridge Solutions (CBS) in collaboration with the IPWEA and NSW councils to help meet this challenge. 

In August 2014 workshops were held with 39 councils and eight industry organisations. Based on feedback from the workshops, Roads and Maritime has refined its initial concept design for a prestressed concrete modular bridge system. Roads and Maritime has also developed draft guides for bridge investigation, design, construction and operations and management to assist councils. 

A prestressed concrete double-T cross section was selected as an efficient cross section. The modules in each span are joined with an in-situ stitch, resulting in a quality durable bridge deck. Several other innovations incorporate a low performance steel traffic barrier, precast kerb, and simplified and safe installation method. 

A pilot bridge has been constructed at Bookookoorara Creek on Mt. Lindesay Highway north of Tenterfield to verify the design and the CBS Guides. The bridge is jointly funded by the NSW and Federal governments and Tenterfield Shire Council. CBS will assist council staff during investigation, design and construction through the provision of technical guides covering aspects of bridge investigation, design, construction and operation and maintenance. 

Country Bridge Solutions are intended to:
 • Provide regional and rural councils with simple and easy to build bridge solutions developed by expert bridge and construction engineers
 • Deliver cost savings through the use of standardised prefabricated bridge components
 • Use existing council resources and regional manufacturing capability to replace and build bridges
 • Assist council staff during investigation, design and construction through the provision of technical guides
 • Promote regional economic growth through local employment opportunities 

Country Bridge Solutions represents a significant collaborative effort between RMS, local government councils and the IPWEA. 
 
BIOGRAPHY 

David Andrews BE(hons1), MBA, FIEAust, CPEng., NER  commenced his career as a junior local government engineer at Dumaresq Shire Council and progressed to the Director of Engineering Services for Clarence Valley Council in regional NSW. Throughout his career David has designed and built many small bridges and was awarded the Engineers Australia National Local Government Medal in 1993 for the development of a suspended scaffold system for safe bridge maintenance. David is the founder and current chairman of the IPWEA (NSW) Roads and Transport Bridge Working Party. He joined Roads and Maritime in 2009 where he is the Senior Project Development Manager for major projects including several Bridges for the Bush projects in Northern Region. David is the Project Director for the ambitious Country Bridge Solutions Project.
 
David Hildebrand
Senior Officer - Asset Management
VicRoads
PLANNING & PRE-CONSTRUCTION – THE DARK SIDE OF THE HOPKINS RIVER BRIDGE PROJECT 

How well do we know the work that goes into the planning and pre-construction activities of a new bridge project? Specifically those that involve the creation of a new bridge? Who has measured the human hours, the effort, the missteps and the successes that all occur before the first ‘shovel’ is dug? Usually the focus is on the construction process with the goal to making it more efficient, more effective and that is fair enough because for nearly all projects the construction phase is where most of the budget is spent. But we need to understand the planning and preconstruction better especially as it seems that political forces driven by public expectation demand that we ‘prove’ our thinking and justify our spend of ‘their’ dollar. How many of those that deliver bridge projects have an understanding of how the project scope is arrived at? Designs do not just materialise out of the ‘Dark Side’ known as the planning process. This paper will explore the Dark Side as it occurred with a bridge replacement project over the Hopkins River south of Ararat and identify what was the good, the bad and the ugly.

BIOGRAPHY 

David Hildebrand is Senior Officer of Asset Management with VicRoads, Western Victoria. He has 14 years experience in the identification, development and sometimes delivery of Bridge Projects big and small in country Victoria.
 
David Miller
Director - Engineering
Sterling Group
DISTRIBUTION OF TRAIN AXLE LOADS TO OPTIMIZE LOAD RATING OF SHORT-SPAN UNDERBRIDGES

Bending capacity of main girders often governs the load rating of ‘skeleton type’ railway underbridges. Preliminary load rating analysis of these types of bridges may be completed by simply applying concentrated axle loads directly onto main girders and, in many instances – especially for longer, simple spans – this initial analysis may produce a rating factor that confirms the adequacy of the main girders for a nominated train consist, and therefore no further refined analysis is necessary for the purposes of continuing current levels of train operation.

However, in some instances, this high-level analysis may yield an inadequate load rating for the main girders, which would theoretically suggest that speed or load restrictions are required for the asset. In actuality, the girders support transoms and rails which effectively distribute concentrated axle loads more broadly across a span. By taking this effect into consideration, a more accurate and reasonable load rating may be determined, thereby avoiding unnecessary speak or load restrictions for asset owners.

Research completed by the late Professor Paul Grundy of Monash University in the 1990s identified that a reduction in peak applied bending moment of approximately 11% could be typically achieved for steel girder underbridges by accounting for this longitudinal distribution.

This paper follows on from that research and critically assesses for what span lengths this effect is relevant for some typical steel girder underbridges currently in service on Australian railway corridors. The findings are generally transferable to different types of superstructures in both Rail and Road industry.

BIOGRAPHY

David Miller is a Senior Structural Engineer and Director of Engineering for Sterling Group Consultants with more than 10 years of experience in the design, inspection and assessment of civil infrastructure, primarily within the transportation sector. Over his career David has delivered numerous Level 3 and specialist engineering investigations of road, rail and pedestrian bridges of varying forms and materials, many involving complex access methodologies and specific material testing requirements. David is focused on collaborating with asset owners to understand their specific needs and develop the most appropriate methodologies for arriving at results that hold meaning and can be relied upon in developing asset management strategies.
 
David Molloy
Senior Structural Engineer
BG&E
A NEW POST TENSIONED CONTINUITY DETAIL FOR SUPER TEES 

Connecting prestressed precast concrete girders for continuity over a pier can reduce the structural depth required for superstructures of a given span. The resulting continuous superstructure can result in significant cost savings where long retained approaches are required, or where there is a constrained vertical envelope. In Australia, Super Tee girders are often made continuous with a cast in place stitch pour, with non-prestressed reinforcement projecting out of the girders and lapped to provide positive moment resistance.

This paper presents new a post-tensioned continuity detail that has been used on the Melton Highway Level Crossing Removal Project for a three span continuous rail overbridge carrying Melton Highway over the Sunbury/Bendigo Line at Sydenham, Victoria. Using this detail resulted in an increased span for future track duplication, minimised the height of the retained earth approaches and reduced the stitch width to eliminate falsework, which would have impacted the rail corridor. Additionally, this paper identifies design and construction challenges for the detail and compares the new post-tensioned continuity detail with both post-tensioned and non-post-tensioned continuity details used elsewhere.

BIOGRAPHY

David Molloy is a structural engineer with over 8 years’ experience. He has worked on a variety of bridge, marine, civil infrastructure, and building projects in Australia, the Pacific, South America, and the Middle East in design, inspection, and asset maintenance roles. His small bridge experience includes the Woolgoolga to Ballina portion of the Pacific Highway Upgrade, Ravenswood Street Bridge for Princes Highway Bega Bypass, and Johnstons Creek Pedestrian Bridge as part of the Tramsheds development in Glebe, NSW.
 
Dion Christian
Diagnostic & Remedial Engineer
Absafe
BRIDGE REMEDIATION BY ROPE ACCESS 

Bridges by the nature of their structure and location provide a challenge for their maintenance and investigation with respect to access. 

The use of rope-access to enable large scale remediation projects is less common than its use to enable inspection and diagnostics. However, due to its inherent safety, cost-effectiveness and mobility, rope-access is a suitable work platform for many medium to large scale remedial projects, including bridge repair. Rope access can be combined with lightweight environmental encapsulation systems to allow work such as protective coatings to shotcreting to be performed. 

Through a case study on the Gipps Street Footbridge, along with some other projects, Dion will discuss and detail recent innovations in the specialist access industry which have been employed to execute significant repairs on bridges, reservoirs and spillway gates which are difficult to access, are in highly sensitive environments, or both. Dion will detail the technical challenges that were overcome and how different types of maintenance and repair tasks can be performed utilising rope access.

BIOGRAPHY 

Dion Christian is a Diagnostic and Remedial Engineer from Absafe’s engineering team. Before commencing work in the remedial industry, Dion has previously worked as a structural engineer in the design of steel, reinforced and post-tensioned concrete structures. Since joining the remedial industry in 2015, Dion has utilised industrial rope access techniques to inspect, diagnose and oversee the remediation of a wide range of structures – ranging from high-rise building facades to cooling towers and dams.
 
Evgeny Shilov
Senior Georadar Application Engineer
IDS GeoRadar
Co-authors: Matthias Twardzik and Francesco Boscagli, IDS - Ingegneria Dei Sistemi S.p.A., Pisa, ITALY and Mark Bell, IDS Australasia
THE USE OF GROUND BASED RADAR TO MONITOR THE EFFECT OF INCREASED AXLE LOADING ON RAIL BRIDGES 

With the critical role that iron ore rail infrastructure plays in maintaining consistently high mine productivity, it is necessary to find solutions that allow to monitor and analyse the status and the physical condition of this infrastructure, with the highest accuracy possible and with non-invasive monitoring techniques.

In this paper, the application of ground-based radar interferometry (IBIS-FS) to remotely monitor and evaluate the condition of twelve railway bridges from an iron ore mine in Australia, is reported. The analysis was conducted to assess the bridges dynamic response to varying axle loads. 

The principal survey aims were to:
  • Analyse the physical condition of the bridges by comparing the measured with the maximum allowable displacement 
  • Verify the effect of increased axle loading; 
  • Define a maintenance plan for the rail bridge network.
This paper shows how this highly accurate and innovative remote monitoring technique can be used to determine whether rail infrastructure is fit for purpose when moving to higher axle loading. Keywords: radar interferometric sensor, bridge displacement, IBIS-FS, remote sensing, structural dynamic response, non-invasive monitoring techniques, structural monitoring and maintenance. 

BIOGRAPHY

Evgeny has a Bachelor Degree in Business - Information Systems, and has over 14 years’ experience in Field and Support Engineering. He started his career in 2003 as Field Technician and Support Engineer, and has a strong industry background in IT and Electronics. With his technical experience and knowledge he joined IDS GeoRadar in 2012 and supports both IBIS and GPR technologies, systems and customers.

 
Geoff Ayton
Consulting Engineer
Geoff Ayton Consultants
CONCRETE DURABILITY; A FIELD GUIDE TO ESSENTIAL CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES

International construction journals regularly feature articles on the growing demands associated with the rehabilitation or replacement of our aging infrastructure. This is creating significant financial and technical challenges. 

Simultaneously, there is growing concern that contemporary infrastructure projects are likely to yield even worse durability, in part as a consequence of industry pressure to optimise time and cost outcomes at a compromise to quality standards. The likely effect of this is that we will bequeath even greater challenges to future generations. 

These challenges call for action on a range of fronts. Organisations such as Engineers Australia (EA) and the Concrete Institute (CIA) periodically conduct seminars on topics such as standards, specifications and research relating to concrete durability. In June 2015, for example, a session titled “Defect Free Construction in NSW; How It Can be Achieved” discussed the findings of a multi-disciplinary EA committee review of the process of certification.

However, in the author’s opinion, too little attention is given to fundamental concrete construction field practices. In an EA article in the 1990s, Peter Miller wrote that “the most brilliant design depends for its success on the skill of the craftsmen dealing with the wet concrete”, and that “project managers no longer afford the time and money to ensure that …the placing and compaction and curing are of the necessary quality.” Over twenty years later, it can be argued that little (if anything) has changed. 

This paper discusses the essential basics of the issues raised by Peter Miller and their impact on the durability of concrete structures. The paper proposes industry-wide discussion on the warrant for a renewed effort to expand training programs throughout the concrete construction industry.

BIOGRAPHY

Geoff gained his Civil Engineering Degree from Newcastle University in 1974 and has since been involved in road and bridge operations throughout NSW. Prior to his retirement in 2014, he spent 25 years as the manager of the Rigid Pavements technical unit of the Roads & Maritime Services Agency NSW. 

He has been involved in the preparation of many of the RMS technical documents on rigid pavements and has been a keynote speaker at several international conferences. 

In 2015 he was awarded Honorary Membership of both the International Society for Concrete Pavements (ISCP) and the Australian Society for Concrete Pavements (ASCP).

 
Hamidreza Sadeghi
Senior Geotechnical Engineer
Katahira Engineers International, JAPAN
ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY SOLUTION TO GROUND HAZARDS IN DESIGN OF BRIDGE ABUTMENTS USING TIMBER PILES

This paper presents the idea of using timber pile networks in bridge abutments to stabilize the earth against geotechnical hazards and to increase the bearing capacity. The idea is put to discussion and judgment through numerical analysis and case study of short concrete bridges that had been severely damaged during the 2013 Bohol Erthquake.  There failure was due to excessive movement of the embankments and failure of the main piles due to the lateral earth displacement. 

The most efficient solution that could serve both the environmental and geotechnical/seismic criteria was using a network of timber piles that could significantly stiffen the ground and mitigate the liquefaction hazard in the embankments. Finite element analysis also proved the efficiency of proposed configuration in reduction the various failure risks in the bridge embankments. 

BIOGRAPHY 

As geotechnical engineer, Hamid has more than 10 years of consultancy services experience of various infrastructure study and design. Having studied his masters’ in geotechnical engineering in Tehran, Iran he did his Ph.D. in Kyoto University in 2014 and works for Japanese consultant companies since then.
 
Ian Godson
Managing Director
Infracorr
INVESTIGATION AND REMEDIATION OF THE COLD TEA CREEK BRIDGE 

The Cold Tea Creek Bridge is located 21 km south from Newcastle, New South Wales, and flows from Belmont Lagoon to Lake Macquarie. The creek passes under the Pacific Highway B01366 (Cold Tea Bridge]. The bridge constructed in 1968 is in a tidal environment, is a two lane reinforced concrete structure with an overall span length of 18.3m and a width of 18.5m. The bridge is supported by two piers and two abutments, each consisting of a headstock upheld by 10 reinforced concrete piles. 

Infracorr Consulting was commissioned by Roads and Maritime Services to provide a remedial specifications for the Cold Tea Bridge project. 
The paper will include:
 • The initial investigation results and testing methods adopted to determine the cause of deterioration.
 • Details of repair options provided and the success of the rehabilitation.
 • Discussion of the reasons for the adoption of the preferred repair system chosen in co-operation with the client.
 • The successful remediation methods used for the structures.
 • Key challenges during the remedial operation in regard to access and site requirements and performance. 

BIOGRAPHY

With over 27 years in the remedial and corrosion engineering fields and has worked on many of the most technically challenging repair projects both in Australia and overseas. His quest for seeking out new technologies for the investigation and provision of repair solutions led to him introducing concrete Cathodic Protection (CP) technology to Australia in 1989 after studying with Oronzia De Nora in Italy. More recently he has been instrumental in specification and design of the Hybrid Anode CP system emanating from the UK for use in Australian infrastructure repair where appropriate. In 2004, after 17 years as a shareholder and founding managing director of Remedial Engineering Pty Ltd (now Savcor A.R.T.), he left to establish a new company, Ian Godson and Associates Pty Ltd, a specialist engineering consultancy which in 2011 had a name change to Infracorr Consulting Pty.
 
James O'Grady
BDM Civil
Mainmark Ground Engineering
NON DESTRUCTIVE STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF STRUCTURES USING IN-SERVICE DYNAMIC RESPONSE 

The STRAAM method utilizes the normal traffic conditions and wind loads on the structure to measure the frequency response of the structure. This allows the quick calibration of Finite Element Models that can be used to accurately assess the strength of the structure. Furthermore, this information allows asset owners to efficiently track changes in the capacity of their structures due to aging, impact, earthquake or flood activity through changes in the vibration of the structure and associated natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios.

Mainmark have introduced the STRAAM system of full scale structural integrity assessment and continuous monitoring for bridges into Australia and New Zealand. Advances in measuring extremely low amplitude vibrations combined with methods for extracting the unique dynamic signature have now enabled the rapid measurement of the response of steel and concrete structures

This paper discusses the results obtained from field measurements of a bridge on a mine in central Queensland. The bridge owners required measurements of the current condition that would allow them to assess if the current load restrictions on the bridge were adequate, and if the actual performance of the bridge was to design or exceeded design.

BIOGRAPHY 

James O'Grady is a civil engineer with over 25 years experience in design and construction. He is a Chartered Professional Engineer and a Fellow of Engineers Australia. He commenced with Mainmark Uretek in 2010 bringing over 20 years of experience in civil engineering and construction, from design of structures to supply of material to construction projects. James is responsible for managing the sales team in Australia. 
 
Jason Eggleton
Bituminous Services Manager - Infrastructure Services
Downer
Glen Henderson
Bridge Works Supervisor, Regional Maintenance Delivery - Asset Maintenance,
Roads and Maritime Services, Wagga Wagga 
RESURFACING OVERWATER SINGLE LANE BRIDGE TO AN ISLAND WITHOUT ENVIRONMENTAL OR TRAFFIC IMPACT

Roads & Maritime Services NSW needed to address the disrepair of a 300m2 single lane spray sealed timber bridge passing over the Murray River which is the only access to the mainland for island residents. 

In planning this project RMS realised 
• that a spray seal at this location would risk contaminants falling into the Murray River and pose potential risk to the environment
• that all timber slabs needed to be replaced meaning total area resurfacing was required.
• local island residents were concerned that a major repair would remove their only link to Albury. 

The challenge was to resurface the existing 300m2 bridge to deliver a quality surface without negatively impacting the sensitive Murray River environment or local resident access. RMS Wagga Wagga NSW was able to use the BRP Road Patch to successfully resurface the bridge with no negative impact on the Murray River Environment or Island residents. RMS and Downer believe this co-prepared paper is a good representation of a successful project which showcases “Innovations is design, construction, and maintenance”.

BIOGRAPHY

Jason Eggleton joined Downer in September 2010 and is currently Downers Bituminous Services Manager responsible for the Emulsion, BRP Road Patch, Patchmaster Coldmix, & Precoat product & services. Recruited to offer a new perspective to the Downer Bituminous Products Business, Jason holds a Bachelor of Business and brings over 20 years experience from the Consumer Goods/Grocery Industry.
 
Jawad Zeerak
Engineer – Geotechnical
EIC ACTIVITIES
Dr Michael Wei 
Principal – Geotechnical
EIC Activities 
USE OF DUCTILE IRON PIPE PILES FOR A NEW SHARED USER PATH BRIDGE OVER THE MARIBYRNONG RIVER IN WEST MELBOURNE/FOOTSCRAY  

The Victorian Government, through the delivery agency VicRoads, funded the construction of Stage One of the West Gate Distributor Project including the strengthening and widening of the existing Shepherd’s Bridge over the Maribyrnong River west of Melbourne. As part of the project a new Shared Use Path (SUP) bridge was constructed to provide a dedicated and safer route for cyclists and pedestrians over the Maribyrnong River. 

The new 190m long, 3 span SUP Bridge comprises two abutments and two piers denoted as East Abutment, East Pier, West Pier and West Abutment. The ground profile varied significantly between the two abutments and the piers located adjacent to the Maribyrnong River. The general subsurface ground profile comprised variable thickness of fill, Coode Island Silt (East Abutment), Fishermens Bend Silt underlain by Newer Volcanics Basalt of varying strength and weathering degree encountered at depths between 7m at the west abutment and greater than 30m in the east abutment below ground surface.

During the tender and preliminary design stages, Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) Piles were proposed as the foundation system to support the new SUP Bridge. However, during the detailed design stage of the project, an alternative innovative foundation solution comprising driven 170mm diameter (9mm thick wall) Ductile Iron Pipe Piles (DIPP) was proposed and adopted for the SUP bridge abutments and piers. The DIPPs are composite ductile iron pipes with the steel section filled with Superworkable 50MPa concrete. The design of the Bridge foundation was undertaken by the project design consultants SMEC Australia Pty Ltd (SMEC). As part of the design, a pile group analysis, pile axial capacity checks and a 2D Plaxis analysis (to assess lateral loading on the piles due to embankment construction) were completed by SMEC. 

The nominated test piles were tested using high-strain dynamic load testing using Pile Driving Analyser (PDA) with CAPWAP analysis using signal matching. Reported CAPWAP analysis on a representative blow from each test pile showed that the mobilised geotechnical capacity exceeded the required geotechnical strength for both abutment and pier locations.

A DIPP was for the first time used on a VicRoads project on the recently completed West Gate Distributor - Stage One Project.

BIOGRAPHIES  

Jawad Zeerak Jawad has over 8 years’ consulting experience in geotechnical engineering. He joined EIC Activities in May 2017, prior to which Jawad was a senior/ geotechnical engineer at SMEC Australia. Jawad has been involved with geotechnical design and services for a broad range of projects in the roads, railways, bridges, tunnels & underground structures, ports, dams & hydropower, mining, landfill and water resources sectors. He has also managed delivery of geotechnical aspects of large multidisciplinary projects. Examples of major recent projects include; Melbourne Metro Rail Project, a number of Level Crossing Removal Projects across Melbourne, and West Gate Distributor. Jawad has extensive experience in numerical modelling using FE packages and soil-structure interaction analysis. He holds has a bachelor’s degree in Civil & Infrastructure Engineering from RMIT University in Melbourne and a Master Degree in Geotechnical Engineering from UNSW, Sydney. Jawad is a member of Institution of Engineers Australia and Australasian Tunnelling Society.  

Dr Michael Wei is a Principal – Geotechnical at EIC Activities having over 35 years’ experience in geotechnical and structural engineering. He has extensive technical skills that have been developed through his professional careers in academic, research, construction, specialist and engineering consultant. He was a lecture at Taiyuan University of Technology China from 1978 to 1985, a visiting scholar/research student and research fellow at Glasgow University and Liverpool University UK respectively from 1985 to 1993, a project engineer at L&M Geotechnic Singapore (a geotechnical specialist contractor), a senior geotechnical engineer leading the geotechnical team at Ove Arup & Partners Singapore from 1995 to 1999 and a senior engineer and senior project engineer at Connell Wagner/Aurecon in Melbourne from 1999 to 2009, a principal and technical principal at SMEC Australia between 2009 and 2017.
 
Jay Craft
Manager Railroad Bridge Group
Jacobs USA
Dan Tingley
Senior Engineer 
Wood Research and Development - USA/ CANADA
THE NEW HANDBOOK OF CONVENTIONAL MAINTENANCE PRACTICES FOR RAILWAY BRIDGES

Committee 10 - Structures Maintenance and Construction, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA) members have in June of 2015 created a new Handbook of Conventional Maintenance Practices for Railway Bridges. The new handbook covers three sections including timber, concrete and steel. 

The timber section discusses substructure restoration including pile posting techniques, pile bent partial and full framing. In addition pumping pile solutions are presented along with cap replacement strategies. Superstructure maintenance methods are also discussed including chord ply replacement, stringer replacement and methods of upgrading practices for these maintenance procedures such as slope cutting notches. 

In the concrete bridge maintenance section such topics as crack abatement and repair, tension face spalling and delamination repair are discussed. Further, replacement of degraded reinforcing steel and restoring continuity is discussed. Reactive aggregate repair methods are discussed and proper adhesion methods for patch repair covered.

In the steel section such important topics as bottom flange angle splice change, crack arrest and rivet replacement are discussed.

Dan Tingley, Senior Engineer, Wood Research and Development - USA/ CANADA and Jay Craft, Manager Railroad Bridge Group, Jacobs, USA ,Sub-Chairmen of the Handbook of Conventional Maintenance Practices Development Committee, Committee 10, American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association (AREMA) will in a special 90 minute Session detail the important aspects of the new handbook. Solutions, ideas and recommendations for ways to deal with typical railway bridge maintenance issues will be presented. 

This session will provide an important opportunity for engineers based in Australasia and Asia to improve their knowledge of maintenance of railway bridges

BIOGRAPHIES

Jay Craft was born and raised in a small coal mining town in Southern Illinois the son of a coal miner. Jay Graduated from High school in 1967 and Joined the Airforce on a delayed enlistment program. He was inducted into the US Airforce 3 weeks after graduation and served in Vietnam for 22 months in 1968 and 1969. Upon his return from Vietnam, Jay married his high school sweetheart, Beverly and has been married to her for almost 48 years. They now live in a ski resort town in the Southern California Mountains. The have two children, Amber and Arron and 7 grandchildren. Jay is a licensed private pilot and enjoys snow skiing in the winter and exploring the mountains in the summer.

Jay has a BS in Construction Management from Southern Illinois University. Jay’s railroad career begin in 1977 with the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railroad as Assistant General Bridge and Bridge Foreman. Jay initiated the first computerized inspection and maintenance tracking for the AT&SF Railway in 1988. Jay has been inspection and performing maintenance on railroad bridges for 40 years and continues to personally inspect railroad bridges. 

Jay is a founding member of the AREMA Committee 9, Seismic Design for Railway Structures, and a member of AREMA Committee 10 Structures Maintenance and Construction. Jay is an instructor for the AREMA Bridge Inspection Seminar. Jay is currently the Manager of the Railroad Bridge Group for Jacobs.

 Dr. Dan Tingley graduated from University of New Brunswick with a B. Sc. F.E. and later a  M.Sc.C.E.. Following this in  the 90’s Tingley finished his Ph.D. in wood technology and  structural engineering at Oregon State University. 

 He has worked in the wood products field for 40 years. He currently serves as senior  engineer for Wood Research and Development and Advanced Research and Development and makes his base in Portland, Oregon. Tingley holds over 40 patents worldwide and has over 125 referred and non-referred publications. He specializes in timber structures design and restoration with a significant interest in timber bridges. He is currently acting as senior engineer providing oversight on 20 timber bridge restoration projects worldwide.
 
Jeroen Berends
Principal Geotechnical Engineer
Geoinventions Consulting Services
Co-authors: Barry Wai-Choo Kok, Principal Geotechnical Engineer and Peter Yeats, Geotechnical Engineer, Geoinventions Consulting Services and Martin Silec, Managing Director Concrib
THE INNOVATIVE DESIGN OF A PILED THROUGH MASS GRAVITY WALL FOR THE HOMESTEAD GULLY BRIDGE REHABILITATION, MONTO

The Department of Transport and Main Roads (DTMR) commissioned the rehabilitation of the Homestead Gully Bridge which is located on Cania Dam Road north-west of Monto, Queensland. The original three span bridge was constructed in the early 1960’s and was supported on driven timber piles. The newly constructed bridge consists of abutment support systems constructed of a 3.2m high mass gravity Stone® Strong retaining wall supported by 5.0m deep 600mm Ø bored piers to withstand the lateral soils pressure of the engineering fill and nominal traffic load. Bored piers were strategically positioned to prevent clashing with existing timber piles. The system was designed not intended to provide any structural loading support to the bridge. The soil profile comprises of a 15.0m thick alluvium predominantly stiff to very stiff clay, underlain by a 7.5m thick firm sandy silt and organic clay to 22.5m depth, followed by loose to medium dense silty sand.

This paper describes the design verification process using Ultimate Limit State (ULS) and Serviceability Limit State (SLS) methods to assess the stability and displacement of the pier supported Stone® Strong wall system.

BIOGRAPHY

Jeroen is a geotechnical engineer with 15 years of experience in design and construction both within the public and private sectors. He has provided designs on many large-scale projects encompassing the fields of civil infrastructure and geotechnical design both in Australia and Africa. Projects included the Gateway Upgrade Project, Gateway Upgrade South, Ballina Bypass and Kooragang Island Coal Export Terminal.
 
Jewely Parvin
Structures Asset Policy Engineer
Main Roads Western Australia
Erica Smith
Principal Bridge Engineer
BG&E
SEMI-AUTOMATION OF PERIOD PERMIT AND SINGLE TRIP PERMIT VEHICLE BRIDGE ASSESSMENTS

The volume of heavy vehicle permit applications has continued to increase at approximately 8% per annum in Western Australia, requiring more engineering assessment time and pressure to maintain agreed permit turnaround times. To make the permit assessment process more efficient, Main Roads Western Australia (MRWA) has recently developed a Heavy Vehicles assessment module as part of its corporate, electronic Bridge Management System (BMS) to semi-automate the permit assessment process. Period permits and single trip permits for floats and platforms are now completed. 

The completion of this application has halved load assessment time, ensured consistency in permit assessment, improved response to the transport industry and minimised opportunity for litigious situations. In addition, by storing all previous permits electronically within BMS, the full history of permit assessments enables quick and consistent assessment of comparable future permit applications. 

This paper describes the approach adopted by MRWA to develop software that is used for all bridge load assessments for heavy vehicle period permits and single trip assessments. It also details the assessment methodology and shows the solutions adopted within BMS. 

BIOGRAPHIES 

Jewely Parvin is the Structures Asset Policy Engineer for Main Roads Western Australia. She received a BSc in Civil Engineering from Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology and MEng from the University of Technology in Sydney and has experience in the design, construction and management of structures. She is currently responsible for the inspection, load rating and heavy vehicle assessments for bridges in Western Australia.
 
 Erica Smith is a Principal Bridge Engineer with BG&E Pty Ltd. She received a BE(Hons) and  BComm from the University of Western Australia and MEng from the University of Florida and  has worked in a variety of bridge positions and on various research projects over 20 years in  transport infrastructure management, inspection, maintenance, design and assessment.


 
John Hillman
President and CEO
HCB, USA
THE HILLMAN-COMPOSITE BEAM

Commercialization of the "Hillman-Composite Beam” (HCB) began with the first installation in 2008. Since that time, over 40 spans have been installed in North America with planned installations in Australia for 2017. 

The HCB comprises three main sub-components that are a shell, compression reinforcement and tension reinforcement. The shell comprises a fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) box beam. The compression reinforcement consists of self-consolidating concrete in a profiled conduit within the shell. The tension reinforcement consists of steel fibers infused in the bottom flange. The unique combination of materials in an HCB basically comprise a “Tied-Arch in a Fibreglass Box”. The HCB combines the strength and stiffness of conventional concrete and steel with the lightweight and corrosion-resistant advantages of advanced composite materials. What results are sustainable structures that are lighter, stronger, more corrosion resistant and more resilient than bridges of conventional materials. 

The HCB made was used for the first composite freight rail bridge in the world, the longest composite bridge in the world at 165 m and the longest girder span for conventional USA highway loadings at 32 m.  It has has demonstrated that hybrid FRP structures can be competitive with conventional bridge materials on a first cost basis. 



Canadian Pacific elected to replace the decaying steel bridge near Fernie, British Columbia with HCB

BIOGRAPHY 

John R Hillman, PE, SE is President & CEO of HCB, Inc. He has been involved in design and construction of unique bridges for over 30 years. His HCB invention has brought worldwide recognition including; the Construction Innovation Forum’s 2010 NOVA Award and the 2013 Charles Pankow Award from ASCE. In 2010 Mr Hillman was honored with the 2010 Engineering News Record – Award of Excellence and in 2013 he was recognized by the Obama White House as a “Transportation Champion of Change.”
 
Justin Dewey
PhD Candidate
James Cook University
THE BEHAVIOUR OF ROUND TIMBER MEMBERS NOTCHED OVER THE SUPPORT ON THE TENSION FACE 

Timber is widely used in the construction of bridges in Australia. An interesting feature is that girders used in these structures are often round in profile. Notching of the girders end is required for seating purposes and to create levelness in the top of the structure. This reduces the strength of the girder due to concentrations of high shear and cross-grain tensile stress at the re-entrant corner.

It is known that rectangular timber members with a notched slope of 1:4 will sustain significantly larger failure loads. This also appears to be the case in round notched members. Experiments undertaken at James Cook University have shown round timber members, sniped to a depth of 25% of total and with a slope of 1:4 slope will, on average achieve a load 134% higher than a member with a slope of 1:0. Initial failure is still due to tension perpendicular to the grain before shear failure ensues with slippage of the fibres parallel to the grain. A slope of 1:4 also significantly reduces the time between notch failure and shear failure occurring by a factor of three. Thus strengthening options should be considered if tension failure perpendicular to the grain is observed in sloping notches. 

BIOGRAPHY 

Completed a trade in carpentry and joinery before beginning a career of timber truss and wall frame detailing. When the GFC hit I decided to study civil engineering at JCU. Completed the BEng with first class honors and am currently studying for a Ph.D. in structural engineering at JCU supported via an APA scholarship.
 
Kabir Patoary
Principal Bridge Engineer
GHD
CITYLINK TULLA WIDENING – BULLA ROAD TO POWER STREET

The CityLink and Tullamarine Freeway corridor between Melbourne CBD and airport is one of the most heavily trafficked roads in Melbourne carrying approximately 200,000 vehicles per day. The CityLink Tulla Widening (CTW) is a $1.28 billion infrastructure project, jointly funded by the Commonwealth, Victorian government and Transurban, designed to increase capacity, reduce travel times and improve safety on CityLink and Tullamarine Freeway. 

Aurecon-GHD Joint Venture, the design consultant for CPB Contractors delivering approximately 19 kilometers of freeway upgrade from Bulla Road to Power Street section under the design and construct contract to incorporates additional lanes and other measures to improve the flow of traffic. The structural works of the project covers widening of existing freeway bridges and elevated structures, new road bridges, pier and gantry protection barriers, ITS gantries for new freeway management system and significant length of noise and retaining walls. 

This paper will discuss the various engineering and construction challenges presented by this true brown field infrastructure project and various design innovations, which have resulted in construction cost and time savings and reduced maintenance requirements. The construction of the project is expected to be completed by end of 2017.

BIOGRAPHY

Dr. Kabir is Chartered Professional Engineer with more than 20 years of experience in structural engineering particularly in designing Bridges, Viaducts and Tunnels in Australia and Overseas. His bridge/viaduct design experience includes medium to long span bridges, precast and cast-in-situ segmental box girder bridges, Cable Stay Bridge, incrementally launched bridges, integral bridges, and prestressed T-girder/Super T beam bridges. Tunnel design experience includes cut and cover tunnel and NATM/sequential excavation tunnel. Kabir has been involved in an extensive list of Design and Construct (and Alliance) projects with major bridge works such as CityLink Tulla Widening, Dingley Bypass, Regional Rail Link, M80 Ring Road Upgrade, Princes Highway East Duplication, Wodonga Rail Bypass, Nagambie Bypass, Monash-Westgate-CityLink Upgrade, Geelong Bypass Section 3, Taylors Road Grade Separation etc. Dr. Kabir is also VicRoads prequalified Proof Engineer for Complex Structure and Registered Professional Engineer of Queensland (RPEQ).
 
Ken Maxwell
Technical Director, Bridges
Arcadis
BEARING REPLACEMENT – BLAXLAND’S CROSSING BRIDGE, WALLACIA, SYDNEY

The existing bridge (known as Blaxland’s Crossing) that carries Silverdale Road over Nepean River at Wallacia on the western outskirts of Sydney is a structurally continuous five span post-tensioned concrete structure with an overall length of 103.6 metres, and was opened to traffic in 1966. 

As the laminated neoprene bearings in this bridge have provided nearly 50 years of service, it was deemed by Wollondilly Shire Council that they have exceeded their anticipated design life, particularly as this bridge represents an early use of this type of bearing in Australia. 

The paper describes the load rating assessment of the superstructure and the proposed bearing replacement system, including the design and construction constraints presented by the configuration of the bridge. 

BIOGRAPHY

 Ken is a bridge engineer and Technical Director, Bridges with Arcadis Australia Pacific, in their Sydney office. He graduated Bachelor of Engineering (Civil, 1st Class Honours) from the University of Technology, Sydney and Master of Engineering Studies (Structural and Foundation Engineering) from the University of Sydney. He has been involved in the inspection, assessment, concept design and detailed design of road and railway bridges for 30 years, having designed over 85 bridges. Ken is accredited with Transport for NSW as a Subject Matter Expert (Structural), accredited with Australian Rail Track Corporation as Designer/Verifier/Approver of bridge design projects, and accredited to undertake Third Party Works Independent Design Review of bridge design projects on behalf of John Holland Rail.
 
Kenny Luu - 1
Principal Civil Engineer - Bridges
Amey
Co-authors: Chang Liu, Senior Bridge Engineer and Amelia Agnew, Bridge Engineer, Arup
WIDENING OF THE EXISTING BRIDGE OVER RESERVOIR ROAD ON THE M4 SMART MOTORWAY PROJECT, SYDNEY

The M4 Smart Motorway project aims to introduce Intelligent Transport Systems along the M4 Motorway between Pitt Street overpass at Mays Hill and Russell Street at Lapstone in Sydney. As part of this project, the existing bridge over Reservoir Road is required to be widened to accommodate an additional traffic lane on the westbound entry ramp and the future implementation of hard shoulder running on the motorway.

The proposed widening section comprises 3 No. 1200mm deep Super-T precast girders supported on new sill beams to emulate a similar structural behaviour to the existing bridge. The widening section is proposed to be made integral with the existing bridge via a longitudinal stitch pour at the deck level and a doweled joint between the existing and new sill beams. The new sill beams were sized to satisfy the onerous eccentricity and bearing pressure requirements by the New South Wales Road and Maritime’s Specification R57 for both dead and live serviceability load combinations.

The existing Reinforced Soil Walls at both bridge abutments are required to be partially demolished and reconstructed to accommodate the alignment of the bridge widening. A Plaxis model was develop to predict the differential transverse settlements between the existing bridge and the widening section due to live loads. These predicted differential settlements were then considered in the bridge design. A detailed discussion of the design and constructability aspects of the bridge widening is provided herein. 
 
BIOGRAPHIES

Kenny Luu is a principal civil engineer and a bridge team leader with Amey Ausralia. He has over 15 years of combined research and industry experience with a strong focus in the concept and detailed design of bridges, earth retaining structures and other civil structures. On the M4 Smart Motorway project, Kenny was the discipline leader for bridges and structures.

Chang Liu is a senior bridge engineer with Arup in Sydney with 9 years of experience covering many technical and non-technical facets of engineering. Chang has a wide range of experience with different clients on projects of varying scope. On the M4 Smart Motorway project, Chang was responsible for the delivery of the widening over Reservoir Road.

Amelia Agnew is a bridge engineer with Arup in Perth. Since graduation from the University of Western Australia in 2014 with a Bachelor of Engineering and Bachelor of Science, she has worked on a number of civil engineering projects with a primary focus on the modelling, design and review of bridges and civil structures. On the M4 Smart Motorway project, Amelia was responsible for the design of the widening over Reservoir Road.
 
Kenny Luu - 2
Principal Civil Engineer - Bridges
Amey
Saman Zargarbashi
Senior Geotechnical Engineer,
Arup

DESIGN OF THE RETAINING WALL STRUCTURES ON THE M4 SMART MOTORWAY PROJECT, SYDNEY

The M4 Smart Motorway project aims to introduce Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) along the M4 Motorway between Pitt Street overpass at Mays Hill and Russell Street at Lapstone in Sydney. As part of this project, seventeen retaining walls are required to support the associated ramp widening works and the installation and maintenance of the ITS infrastructures.

These retaining wall structures comprise many different wall types ranging from soil nailing, piled wall and a hybrid combination of an L-shaped wall supported on piles. The design of these retaining structures was required to overcome many constraints imposed by an existing site around one of the most congested motorways in Sydney. One of the key drivers in the selection of the wall types is to achieve constructability with minimum disruptions to the existing M4 motorway as well as the communities around the sites. These considerations were reflected in the design of the retaining wall structures located along the eastbound entry ramps at the M4 motorway interchanges with Burnett Street, Coleman Street and the M7 Motorway, respectively.

This paper presents the key design aspects of the retaining wall structures on the M4 Smart Motorway project with a focus on the three specific structures at the above interchanges.

BIOGRAPHIES

Kenny Luu is a principal civil engineer and a bridge team leader with Amey Ausralia. He has over 15 years of combined research and industry experience with a strong focus in the concept and detailed design of bridges, earth retaining structures and other civil structures. On the M4 Smart Motorway project, Kenny was the discipline leader for bridges and structures.

Saman Zargarbashi is a lead senior geotechnical engineer with Arup. He has over 15 years experience in civil and geotechnical engineering including engineering design, project managements, site investigations, construction supervision and research. His consulting assignments have included tender and construction phase design of large scale transport, mining and civil infrastructure projects and urban developments across Australia and overseas. On the M4 Smart Motorway project, Saman was the discipline leader for geotechnics.
 
Liam Fetherston
Structural Engineer
Sterling Group
INSPECTION, ASSESSMENT AND REMEDIATION OF A HERITAGE LISTED RAILWAY BRIDGE

The Aldgate Underbridge is located approximately 35 kilometres from Adelaide along the Keswick to Serviceton freight corridor in South Australia. The bridge is comprised of a single span of approximately 19 metres and carries single track operations. The superstructure is a half-through riveted plate girder arrangement with a buckle plate between longitudinal stringers, and bears simply onto bluestone masonry abutments on a significant skew of nearly 40 degrees to Mount Barker Road below.

Sterling Group were commissioned initially by ARTC to complete a detailed inspection and load rating assessment of the superstructure. The inspection identified significant defects with potential to affect the load carrying performance of the bridge, and Sterling were subsequently engaged to provide remedial design solutions and complete the in-field strengthening to regain original integrity at key locations.

This case study tells the story of the remediation of a heritage listed railway bridge from the stage of initial investigation, to analysis and design, all the way through to completion of remedial works. Some of the key topics include:
  • Detailed inspections to inform structural analysis and remedial design solutions 
  • Secondary, more targeted investigations to better understand the condition of hidden elements and the impacts on structural capacity
  • Appropriate extents of remediation to regain integrity and extend service life 
  • Diversity of challenges encountered over the full cycle of the project, from initial inspection through to in-field completion of strengthening works
BIOGRAPHY

Liam Fetherston is a Structural Engineer at Sterling Group with Australian and international consulting experience in the civil transport infrastructure industry. He has successfully managed the delivery of various minor works packages within rail environments and has proven capabilities in completing detailed field investigations, load rating analysis and remediation of dated infrastructure, particularly railway bridges. Liam is focused on providing practical solutions that assist operators in maintaining the service of their assets.
 
Logan Mullaney
General Manager
InQuik Systems
CASE STUDY: KOSCIUSZKO NATIONAL PARK BRIDGE REPLACEMENT - MURRUMBIDGEE BRIDGE FIRST RIVER CROSSING AFTER TANTANGARA DAM

The NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service manages the Kosciuszko National Park. With Snowy Hydro 2.0 gaining momentum and increasing tourist numbers visiting the Kosciuszko National Park the team at National Parks wanted to ensure their bridge infrastructure was suitable for future needs.

Increased maintenance costs on the old timber bridge at Tantangarra and that its load capacity was limited to 10 tonnes led the team to review its management.

The decision was made to replace the bridge structure to reduce the maintenance required, but to also increase the load capacity to 160 tonnes which would then allow larger maintenance vehicles such as trucks and graders to be able to cross the bridge allowing improved maintenance and emergency access of the road on the other side of the bridge.

The team chose a solution that was cost effective, quick to install in a sensitive pristine ecotourism environment and had a 100 year low maintenance design life. This paper will detail the technical design of the InQuik skew bridge chosen by National Parks and how the team installed abutments and 12 metre bridge decks over a two day period with a total on site time of 11-12 hours.

The paper will also review how the project met environmental challenges with respect to the abutments and footings being placed back from the waterway and also the engineering considerations for design and delivery of a semi-modular bridge system.

BIOGRAPHY

Logan was appointed Managing Director of InQuik Pty Ltd after 10 years in the residential and modular construction industry. He leads a team on the development and delivery of the InQuik Bridging system in Australia and is intimately involved in the process of product development, patent protection, marketing, sales and installation support.  Logan has responsibility for Pacific Islands, EMEA and New Zealand. Logan began his career as a carpenter and licensed builder, completing his apprenticeship and founding his own residential construction company at the age of 21. As well as building conventional homes across NSW, Logan became involved in modular construction projects including building containerised modular units in China throughout 2009.
 
Lukasz Gawlik
Geotechnical Design Engineer
Keller
CASE STUDY: MICROPILES FOR THE REPLACEMENT OF TIMBER RAILWAY BRIDGES

The replacement of two timber bridges was accomplished with the application of groups of micropiles to strengthen existing footings and provide the necessary foundations for the new bridge structures. Vertical and inclined micropiles were required. Several technical and practical constraints needed to be addressed to ensure the micropiles were constructed in a safe manner. A limited headroom drill rig was utilised for the works beneath the existing tracks, while an excavator-mounted unit facilitated drilling between the tracks. Design and installation issues and micropile testing are also discussed, and the paper outlines the challenging geotechnical conditions, the drilling techniques adopted and the details of the high capacity micropiles.

BIOGRAPHY

Łukasz has almost ten years’ experience in geotechnical engineering and ground improvement. He has undertaken design and construction for ground anchors, micropiles, jet grouting and rigid inclusions, amongst others. Łukasz is proficient in geotechnical software and advanced numerical analysis, and brings experience from his seven years in Poland to the projects he has worked on around Australia.
 
Marcia Prelog
Associate, Transport Infrastructure
Aurecon
Nasir Hossain 
Structural Engineer
Aurecon
LOAD RATING AND CONDITION ASSESSMENT - GRAND AVENUE OVERBRIDGE

Grand Avenue overbridge at Rosehill is an existing Sydney Trains asset constructed in 1980. The bridge design was based on a T44 truck loading to the NAASRA code (1976). 

The bridge superstructure is a skewed, three span continuous deck, consisting of rectangular prestressed concrete beams on the end spans and standard Type 3 NAASRA pre-tensioned concrete girders at the central span. The construction of the bridge is unique in that the end spans are 10 metres long, significantly shorter than the 27 metre long middle span, causing a reversal of load action at the abutments under the bridge self-weight. 

The deterioration of the expansion joints and concern about the pier slenderness prompted the request for the condition assessment, load rating and fatigue assessment. The assessment undertaken by Aurecon also explored any deficiency in the structure to carry heavy vehicles on this B-Double approved route. 

The detailing of bridge components such as the movement joints, span lengths, elastomeric bearings and continuous girder connectivity for the full span had significant implications on the assessment and repair solutions. 

This paper explores the key facets of the condition assessment, load rating and subsequent repair recommendations, which were unique to this structure due to unusual bridge detailing, original construction methodology and site specific constraints. 

BIOGRAPHIES 

Marcia Prelog is an Associate within Aurecon who has extensive experience in the inspection and assessment of bridge structures in Australia and overseas. Her 15 years in the Bridges discipline encompasses design in steel, concrete, composites and timber. 

Nasir Hossain is a Structural Engineer in Aurecon who has worked within the petrochemical, mining, ports and telecommunications sectors over the past 10 years. He has a range of experience in the structural assessment of a variety of bridge forms in steel and concrete.
 
Mark Alexander
Technical Director, Bridges
Aurecon
SCREW PILES: BENEFITS IN BRIDGE CONSTRUCTION AND DETAILING TO AS5100 

The use of screw piles as an alternative to driven pile or cast in place piles can provide significant cost and time benefits when used with the right application. Screw piles are able to be constructed with a small rig with low vertical clearance which often suits constrained sites where a larger rig would have difficulties. Typically, many authorities limit the use of screw piles to smaller structures based on their capacity and design life limitations. This paper will present a case study project where screw piles were adopted on a significant bridge structure adjacent to Sydney Airport. The structure was design for a 100 year design life and was required to take significant uplift forces. The paper presents methods for detailing and designing screw piles to meet the requirements of AS5100.3. Key to the design is the detailing for durability, structural anchorage details and the specification of testing requirements; these aspects will be presented to detail.

BIOGRAPHY

Mark is with Aurecon’s Bridge and Civil Structures group in Sydney. Mark has 12 years of experience in across a number of high-profile bridge projects in NSW and many small road and pedestrian bridge projects for local councils and government agencies.

 
Martin Jacobs
Senior Hydraulics Engineer
pitt&sherry
Contributing author:Dr Haydn Betts 
Senior Principal Engineer – Hydraulics
pitt&sherry
BRIDGE SCOUR: WHY THE ENGINEERING IS SKETCHY, AND HOW IT COULD BE IMPROVED

Many river bridges fail because of scour. Though the principle is widely acknowledged, the engineering is typically applied in a sparse and inconsistent manner. This presentation describes the current state of the art, using recent examples, and suggests better ways to engineer scour protection. A more complete picture is needed in the following areas; 
  1. The engagement of asset managers: Current practice does not differentiate between bridges, but some bridges clearly need more robust scour protection than others. Hydrologists and flood engineers are well versed in risk and uncertainty but much of their effort is directed at the risk of overtopping at individual bridges, rather than the probability of the closure of road and rail links that span several river crossings. The required level of scour protection should be better oriented towards an asset-management approach with respect to the risks and consequences, including the expected emergency response. 
  2. Understanding scour mechanisms and quantifying parameters: Current techniques and guidelines lag far behind current technology. Forensic modelling of scoured bridges, using recent advances in underwater point cloud survey and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), could provide vital insights into vortexes, the impacts of debris and the shear resistance of river bed materials.  The image below shows the output from a 3D underwater point cloud survey showing the scour around a bridge pier. A tree is wrapped around the pier. 

  3. Protocols for and quarantining of forensic investigations: Though forensic investigations can be invaluable for the advancement of the profession, they are often stymied by asset managers because of the threat of litigation or adverse publicity. Protocols should be developed to anonymise case studies and quarantine them from abuse.  
BIOGRAPHY

Martin Jacobs has 30 years’ civil engineering experience in UK, Hong Kong and Australia and specialises in flooding and drainage.
 
Michael Broome
Synchronous Jacking Specialist
Kennards Hire – Lift & Shift
COMPUTER CONTROLLED SYNCHRONOUS JACKING FOR THE MAINTENANCE OF BRIDGES

As a relatively new technology, “Synchronous Jacking” is a term widely used, relatively misunderstood and loosely complied with when it comes to lifting bridges using hydraulics.

This paper provides a detailed analysis of the options available when it comes to precisely lifting large heavy structures such as bridges using hydraulics. It looks at what options are available in the market place, how each system works, the input functions that can be controlled during a lift and the parameters that can be set to stop a lift if those values are out of tolerance. Some of the other variables that need to be considered when planning a lift include lateral displacement, live loads, side loading on cylinders and safety features such as check valves and mechanical locking collar cylinders which all form part of developing a safe and effective hydraulic system.

It will provide an in-depth review of a Computer Controlled Synchronous Jacking System and what realistic tolerances / accuracy is achievable during heavy lifts using hydraulic cylinders, some of the features and benefits of a Synchronous Systems and limitations of this technology. The paper will illustrate this through examples of heavy lifts conducted across Australia on a number of projects.

BIOGRAPHY

Michael Broome is a Civil Engineer who has more than 20 years of experience in the construction industry across major projects such as Melbourne’s City Link, M2 Widening in Sydney and the Northern NSW Pacific Highway Upgrades. He has worked as a site engineer, supplier and hirer of goods and services to the Civil, Industrial, Mining and Residential Sectors across Australia and now specialises in the use of Computer Controlled Synchronous Jacking Systems to conduct large heavy lifts with precision and control servicing all the major building and construction sectors.
 
Michael Kemp
General Manager
Wagners CFT
CASE STUDY: LIGHTWEIGHT COMPOSITE MATERIALS FOR "CLIP-ON CYCLEWAY" AT HAWKES BAY, NEW ZEALAND

The Hawkes Bay region in New Zealand is becoming renowned for its cycleways and these are a big tourism drawcard for the region. This paper discusses a case study on the application of lightweight composite materials to upgrade the functional capacity of a 50 yr old reinforced concrete bridge. The bridge was upgraded to include a 2m wide “clip-on cycleway” which safely connects the existing cycleway networks on either side of the Ngaruroro river. 

BIOGRAPHY

As General Manager of Wagners CFT Michael has led the development of the business over the last 15 years – from R+D startup through to a profitable business unit in the Wagner group with over 100 employees. Michael's drive for Innovation and experience in commercialisation and risk management of new technologies has lead to projects right around Australia, and Wagners becoming known as a leader in the field of structural fibre composites
 
Michelle Phillipson
Senior Associate – Geotechnical Engineer
Jacobs
WIDENING OF EXISTING BRIDGE ABUTMENTS – A GEOTECHNICAL APPROACH 

Widening of existing infrastructure is slowly becoming more commonplace but is not yet routine and requires a different thought process. Since the infrastructure was first constructed design codes and acceptable factors of safety are quite often different to the present day which creates a challenge when upgrading or widening the infrastructure thirty or so years later. 

This paper presents the challenges, options considered and final solution adopted for the various bridge widenings on the Gateway Upgrade North (GUN) project. The adopted approach was compliant with the project Scope of Works and Technical Criteria (SWTC) and enabled the widened abutments to wrap around the existing abutments with minimal excavation into the existing abutments, minimising the length and duration of lane closures and the need for temporary retaining walls. Although this was for what would be considered large bridges the adopted approach can be applied to small and large bridges alike. 

BIOGRAPHY

Michelle is a Senior Associate Geotechnical Engineer with Jacobs in Brisbane where she has been based since 2007. Prior to 2007 Michelle was located in the UK. Michelle has worked in the field of geotechnical engineering for over twenty years, has experience in most industry sectors and as a result has a very broad range of experience. Michelle was Geotechnical Design Lead for the Gateway Upgrade North (GUN) project and following completion of the detailed design has moved into a Construction Phase Services (CPS) role .
 
Mo Ehsani
Professor Emeritus of Civil Eng. University of Arizona
President QuakeWrap, USA
Tony White
General Manager
QuakeWrap Australia
ECONOMIC REPAIR OF BRIDGE PILING 

Columns in bridges are subject to deterioration and loss of strength with age. Steel piles corrode, concrete piles may be damaged by alkali silica reaction and timber piles are subject to rotting and insect infestation. A new form of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) laminate has been recently developed by the author that facilitates repair and strengthening of such columns. The laminates are 1.2 m wide, 0.7 mm thick, and are supplied in long rolls. In the field, the laminates are cut in the require length and coated with a thin layer of epoxy paste and wrapped around columns of any shape or size to create a strong impervious shell. The annular space between the column and the shell can be filled with resin or grout. The laminates that are stronger than steel reduce or eliminate the need for reinforcing steel. The product’s first use in Australia was for repair of 16 concrete piles in Kangaroo Point Riverwalk in Brisbane in 2014. Since its introduction, the laminates have been used to repair columns made of timber, concrete and steel in many bridges in Australia. Among the projects to be highlighted in this paper are Barron River bridge (South Bound , Bruce Hwy QLD ), Mundic Creek bridge ( Queensland Rail ), Walla Street Bridge , etc. The case studies will demonstrate the structural and economical advantages of the system. 

BIOGRAPHIES

Mo Ehsani, PhD, PE, SE, FACI Centennial Professor Emeritus of Civil Engineering at the University of Arizona and the President of QuakeWrap, Inc. Professor Ehsani is one of the pioneers of the use of FRP in repair and strengthening of structures since the late 1980s. He has developed a number of unique FRP products for repair and retrofit of structures. 

Tony White has over 12 yrs. sales and Business development experience in the wholesale market and has established QuakeWrap in the Australian market as “the FRP experts”. Tony works closely with QuakeWrap USA to stay up to date with new products and projects so clients can be informed of the latest technology’s QuakeWrap can provide.
 
Nasser Hossain
Senior Engineer - Roads and Structural Assets
City of Sydney
Co-author Param Seenithamby 
Principal Engineer, Roads and Structural Assets,
City of Sydney

CITY OF SYDNEY BRIDGES – AN OVERVIEW AND CURRENT ASSET MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

The City of Sydney has around 39 Bridges. This paper will provide an overview on some of these bridges and their current asset management practices.

The Roads and Structural Asset (RSA) team manages all the roads and structural assets for the City of Sydney. The current RSA team comprises of recently joined engineers, who have introduced their new ideas to improve the management of these bridges and other structural assets.

This paper will present some of their works undertaken in recent years. This team has prepared a draft asset management plan for City’s structures that include Bridges.

This paper will include:
  • Some limited information from that asset management plan. 
  • Discuss complexities associated with some of these bridges because of their difficult access, shared responsibility with other councils or because of their interface arrangement with other asset managers
  • Current investigation works on some of these bridges aiming to improve the conditions, to repair defects or renew components or to determine bridge load rating. 

BIOGRAPHY

Nasser Hossain, PhD has around 16 years Australian experience as a Bridge and Structural Engineer since completing his PhD from the University of Newcastle in 2001. Prior to working with the City of Sydney council, Nasser worked on major civil infrastructure projects while working with lead Australian consultancies. During that period Nasser was involved with the analysis and design, design review, investigation and inspection of major structures that include major Bridges. He has also worked with the RTA and dealt with major bridges. Currently he is working with the City of Sydney’s Roads and Structural asset (RSA) team to manage City’s roads and structural assets.
 
Norm Watt
Special Projects Co-ordinator
Buchanan Advanced Composites
CASE STUDIES OF COMPOSITE BRIDGES IN QUEENSLAND

This paper will review a number of bridge projects where composite materials have been used for bridge structures and decks. These projects will include the Maroochy Wetlands Boardwalk, Sunshine Coast, John W Mott Bikeway Bridge, Moreton Bay, and the Hardgrave Road Bridge, Scenic Rim which have been selected for review as they are for different loadings, applications and environmental conditions.

The paper will include discussion on service life, why and how composite materials can be used for bridge components, maintenance requirements and provide guidance on design, handling and installation.

BIOGRAPHY

Norm was the Managing director of BAC Technologies, Trading as Buchanan Advanced Composites (BAC), for 19 years. He has been a Board Member and President of Composites Australia and served on the advisory board to the Centre for Excellence in Engineering Fibre Composites at the University of Southern Queensland as well as having a 2-year Board position for the CRC in Advanced Composite Structures. Norm commenced with BAC after a 25 year career with the Royal Australian Air Force, retiring as the CO of the F111 Maintenance Squadron.
 
Oliver de Lautour
Senior Bridge Engineer
Aurecon, NEW ZEALAND
David Kidd
Project Manager,
Fletcher Construction FIJI
DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF FOUR BRIDGES FOR POOR GROUND CONDITIONS IN FIJI ISLANDS 

Four bridges in the Fiji Islands were recently replaced using a Design and Construction procurement method for the Fiji Road Authority. The bridges provided vehicle, pedestrian and Fiji Sugar Corporation cane trains over waterways subjected to significant flood events. Design of the replacement bridges was specified to Fiji and New Zealand standards for a 100 year design life. This high specification required additional concrete cover and high strength concrete mixes with supplementary cementitious materials and corrosion inhibitors to ensure durability. Ground conditions at the sites were generally poor and one site had no rock proven in investigations to 65m below ground level. Design requirements to NZ standards required stringent seismic performance criteria to be met. To meet these, the design used ground improvements at the abutments to control abutment stability and movements and the bridge structures were detailed for a ductile seismic response. Standardisation of the replacement bridges was developed into the designs to achieve efficiencies through repetition. Construction of the bridges required innovation to build these in remote locations and within the limitations of supply and construction equipment on island.

BIOGRAPHY 

Oliver de Lautour is a bridge engineer with 11 years’ experience in structural design. He was the design manager for the four replacement bridges in Fiji. His previous project experiences in small bridges include Westgate Footbridge, Old Mangere Bridge Replacement and NCI Footbridge in Auckland, New Zealand.
 
Olivia Mirza
Senior Lecturer
Western Sydney University
Co-Authors: Kamrul Hassan, Thy Hoang Pham, Emile Assaf and Guy Stanshall 
Western Sydney University
THE EFFECT OF WHEEL LOADING ON A RAILWAY BRIDGE 

Australia’s maturing locomotives and railways concerns with faster and heavier loads will have negative effects to the railway infrastructure. This will accelerate the deterioration of the railway system and increase the chance of cracking from the sleepers and/or damage to the rail and fastening system failure. 

The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of wheel loading on the interaction between sleepers and railhead in the rail component system for Minnamurra Bridge in Kiama NSW. A finite element model was analysed for half of the existing bridge to simplify the model and analysis. The bridge was then analysed to determine the stress distribution and vertical displacement across the sleepers and railhead. The results showed a maximum stress of 320 MPa at the point of the wheel rail contact at each load location of the train and carriages. The maximum vertical displacement across the railway bridge was 3 mm. The critical component of the railway bridge was determined to be the rail of the bridge as it experiences high levels of stress. The stress on the rail is close to the yielding limit of the rail material. 

BIOGRAPHY 

Dr. Mirza worked as a structural engineer for eight years before pursuing her academic career. She worked for Leighton Contractors, Australia Consulting Engineers and the Cardno Group. She has many ongoing projects within the government sector  including Transport for New South Wales, Roads Maritime Services and in the private sectors such as Rondo, Wagners, EPC,VSL and may more.
 
Pascal Savioz
Civil Engineer
mageba CHINA
Co-authors Gallai Gustav, mageba (Wels), AUSTRIA, Virendra Ghodke, mageba (Australia) and Wolfram Schwarz, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff

FLEXIBLE JOINT MATERIAL – FROM CERTIFICATION TO INSTALLATION 

Expansions joints can be defined as a component of a bridge providing a continuous surface across the expansion gap for all classes of road users whilst accommodating all ranges of movements. Typically expansion joints are installed between adjacent spans of a bridge deck or the bridge deck and abutment. They are exposed to impact and vibration of traffic and other actions, different climatic conditions and chemical agent impact which causes them to deteriorate faster than other bridge components. This requires maintenance and replacement during the service life of a bridge. 

Plug joints consist of a band of cast-in-situ flexible materials supported over the joint gap by thin plates. Traditionally flexible materials consist of bituminous modified binders and coarse aggregate. Those were vulnerable to plastic deformations and rutting during hot days and hardening and cracking in cold days. The development of a new polyurethane based Flexible-Plug joint system achieved significant improvements under extreme weather conditions, movement ranges and durability. This development of the new material based on ETAG-32 requirements for the expansion joints had been undertaken through extensive in-house and independent testing, full scale prototype testing and optimizing of the initial prototype designs over the years resulted in a Polymer based material replacing asphaltic binders and including a fatigue resistant support system. The paper covers the extensive testing conducted at several independent testing-institutes required to gain an European Technical Approval Certificate, significant features/benefits of the system and discusses examples of installations in Australia. Expansions joints can be defined as a component of a bridge providing a continuous surface across the expansion gap for all classes of road users whilst accommodating all ranges of movements. Typically expansion joints are installed between adjacent spans of a bridge deck or the bridge deck and abutment. They are exposed to impact and vibration of traffic and other actions, different climatic conditions and chemical agent impact which causes them to deteriorate faster than other bridge components. This requires maintenance and replacement during the service life of a bridge. Plug joints consist of a band of cast-in-situ flexible materials supported over the joint gap by thin plates. Traditionally flexible materials consist of bituminous modified binders and coarse aggregate. Those were vulnerable to plastic deformations and rutting during hot days and hardening and cracking in cold days. 

The development of a new polyurethane based Flexible-Plug joint system achieved significant improvements under extreme weather conditions, movement ranges and durability. This development of the new material based on ETAG-32 requirements for the expansion joints had been undertaken through extensive in-house and independent testing, full scale prototype testing and optimizing of the initial prototype designs over the years resulted in a Polymer based material replacing asphaltic binders and including a fatigue resistant support system. 

The paper covers the extensive testing conducted at several independent testing-institutes required to gain an European Technical Approval Certificate, significant features/benefits of the system and discusses examples of installations in Australia. 

BIOGRAPHY 

Pascal Savioz, born in 1973 in Switzerland, holds a master degree in Civil Engineering of the Swiss Institute of Technology (EPFL) Lausanne and a PhD in Technology and Innovation Management of the Swiss Institute of Technology (ETHZ) Zurich. He has over 15 years of experience in various construction projects around the world. He is also author of numerous scientific papers, and is a regular invited speaker at international conferences. Since 2006, he is the Head of Asia-Pacific of mageba, a leading bridge technology company, and manages the company’s fully owned subsidiary in Shanghai, China.
 
Paul Lunniss
Project Engineer
Inner West Council
William Truong
Project Engineer 
Inner West Council 
COOKS RIVER CYCLEWAY UPGRADE BRIDGES

The Inner West Council has recently completed three projects to improve pedestrian and cycle access along the Cooks River. These projects include:
  • The new Tempe Cooks River Bridge which provides a crossing of the river completely separated from traffic, improving connectivity and safety. Using Wagner’s composite products we utilised an existing utility bridge and converted it into a pedestrian/cycle connection across the river.·
  • Improvements to the Underpass at Tempe Station upgrading Kendrick Park cycle way with improved accessibility by providing a dry thoroughfare beside the Cooks River. A new low carbon concrete from Boral called ‘Envisia’ was used. · 
  • The Fleetwood Pedestrian Arch Bridge at Beaman Park which provides a new and moreaccessible crossing across the Cooks River path for all users increasing its attractiveness and popularity. o Paul Lunniss and William Truong, Project Engineers, Inner West Council

BIOGRAPHIES

Paul Lunniss has completed a Master of Engineering and worked in Local Government for the past 10 years maintaining, renewing and upgrading pedestrian/cycle and road bridges in both metropolitan Sydney and regional NSW. He has diversified experience with the ultimate aim of enhancing the quality of life of our communities through excellence in public works and services.

William Truong is a project engineer working in local government with experience in managing the construction and maintenance of civil infrastructure. He has worked on the construction of two new shared path bridges which are located along the Cooks River path providing improved access and connectivity to the Sydney community.
 
Peter Prasad
National Bridges and Structures Engineer
ARTC
Co-authored with Dr. John Mullard, Principal, Lindsay Dynan, Brenton Wakem, Senior Engineer, Lindsay Dynan and Virendra Ghodke, General Manager, mageba (Australia)
AS5100.4 – LATEST CHANGES TO POT BEARING REQUIREMENTS TO REDUCE LIFE CYCLE COSTS

Rapidly improving design technology and the desire to optimise structural designs, present challenges, and also opportunities, for bridge designers. One of the most important components of a modern bridge is the bearings. 

Primitive bridge bearings were quite simple objects. In the wake of the industrial revolution and the dawn of railway engineering during the nineteenth century, bearings became established as important/independent components with distinct structural characteristics. Connections, that until then had allowed little or no movement or rotation, were transformed, enabling bridges to be redesigned as flexible, articulated structures. Simple mechanical elements such as pin, roller and rocker bearings have now been replaced with more sophisticated bearings, thanks to the development of new, more durable materials. A generational change in bearing technology was inevitable due to quickly developing material technologies. In Australia and New Zealand, the adaptation of new technologies has not happened overnight, and has been largely prompted by failures resulting from the use of older technologies or materials.

Pot bearings have been widely used for decades as a cost-effective alternative to elastomeric-bearings. Pot bearings are much smaller due to their condensed fabrication. The proper functioning and durability is ensured by an internal-seal system. Recently documented reports of premature-failures of pot bearings due to elastomer extrusion have prompted detailed investigations into the root causes of the problem. The results of the investigations, conducted on ARTC bridges, are discussed – particularly related to the durability of various internal-seal systems used in the bearing industry and proposed changes to AS5100.4. Recommendations are made to assist bridge designers and managers in selecting bearings with reliable seal systems, enabling significant reduction in total life-cycle costs.

A brief introduction to newer bearing types, including spherical bearings with advanced sliding materials, is also presented.

BIOGRAPHIES

Virendra Ghodke, born in 1982 in India, holds a bachelor’s degree in Civil Engineering of the University of PUNE, India. He has over 12 years of experience in various construction projects in Australia and around the world. For last 7 years he is contributing to Australian Civil Engineering and Construction industry as a solutions consulting engineer with different companies. He is also a professional member of Engineers Australia. Since 2014, he is the General Manager of mageba Australia, a leading bridge technology company, and a fully owned subsidiary of mageba group, Switzerland.
 
Peter Runcie
Group Leader Smart Cities, Transportation and Infrastructure, Data61
CSIRO
CASE STUDIES: STRUCTURAL HEALTH MONITORING FOR REAL-TIME ASSET MANAGEMENT OF SMALL BRIDGES 

The Smart Infrastructure group in Data61 at CSIRO has been developing new technologies for civil infrastructure monitoring and management. The main objective is to assist infrastructure owners (road and rail authorities particularly) in managing assets to support rapidly increasing traffic with an aging asset base on a limited budget. 

On the basis of this, Data61 has identified two small bridges in the state of New South Wales in a trial project. Both bridges have been instrumented using a variety of sensors to capture and understand the bridge behaviour. Real time monitoring data and data analysis techniques are utilised to calculate the remaining service life and remaining structural capacity, and to identify any changes in bridge behaviour over time. Several mathematical and analytical tools and algorithms have been developed and implemented to achieve these objectives i.e. machine learning to identify any change in the bridge behaviour, operational modal analysis to capture the characteristic features of the structure, Bridge Weigh in Motion (BWIM) to characterise the traffic loading and to identify any over-load traffic, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and Finite Element Updating to calculate the structural capacity, fatigue life analysis to count the load cycles and to estimate the remaining life and finally indirect structural health monitoring. In parallel, a new system is being designed by the Smart Infrastructure group which will implement the developed algorithms and apply these to real time data. 

Data61 is aiming to apply these techniques to a number of bridges throughout Australia. 

BIOGRAPHY

Peter currently leads Smart cities, Transportation and Infrastructure business activities for Data61, CSIRO’s data science unit. Peter holds an MBA (Exec) from the Australian Graduate School of Management, graduated from the Australian Institute of Company Directors and is a board member of the Australian Smart Communities Association.
 
Peter Ticaric
Senior Bridge Engineer
Jacobs
Co-Authors: John Steele, Bridge Technical Director and Felix Lie, Bridge Engineer, Jacobs 
WEATHERING STEEL IN BRIDGE REPLACEMENT OF RAIL OVERBRIDGES

In 2014, the Institute of Public Works Engineering Australasia (IPWEA) undertook a road asset management project in consultation with the Local Councils of NSW. The Councils reported back that there were 1894 timber bridges under their ownership and of these, 504 were in poor condition. A further 950 of these bridges were in fair condition, but deteriorating rapidly and soon to be classified as poor. The required funding to continue the service life of these bridges was estimated to be in the order of $220 million, with a continuous $30 million per year to maintain a satisfactory standard. Most of these timber bridges are unsafe and inadequate for loads of modern traffic. The cost to replace the bridges was estimated to be in the order of $470 million. There is a similar situation with bridges on the NSW Country Rail Network where 84 of the 373 overbridges in 2007 were timber bridges with an additional number of the steel girder bridges having timber decks. These bridges are gradually being replaced to improve the safety and load capacity of the rail crossings and reduce the maintenance commitment.

The challenge for the industry is to come up with solutions to replace these bridges that have low construction and ongoing maintenance costs. Despite advantages with lighter weight and speed of construction, steel girder bridges have not been included in the mix of these design solutions due to the cost of applying and maintaining the coatings on the steel. With Bluescope now producing weathering steel in larger plate thicknesses, the use of weathering steel longer span (15 metre plus) bridges is becoming a viable alternative to the conventional precast concrete plank and girder bridges.

Jacobs have recently designed three bridges in weathering steel for the replacement of timber rail overbridges on the Country Rail Network in NSW. With careful detailing of the weathering steel and innovative use of precast concrete decking with the steel, modular steel composite bridge systems should be a viable option for bridge designers, constructors and owners.

This paper and presentation will outline recommendations for the use of weathering steel in bridge replacements for Rail Authorities and the potential for its wider use for Councils and Road Authorities.

BIOGRAPHIES

Peter Ticaric has over 11 year’s professional experience in Civil Engineering associated with infrastructure and building projects. Principal areas of expertise include structural analysis and design of short to medium span bridges including associated civil works, bridge load rating assessments, bridge maintenance inspections and design verification of civil structures. His exposures to bridges include pre-stressed concrete girder and plank, post-tensioned box girder and composite steel superstructures. 

John Steele is a structural engineer with over 25 years’ experience working firstly in building structures then in civil infrastructure for the last 20 years specialising in bridges and other civil structures. He has been involved in the bridge designs on the Pacific Highway, Hume Highway and Great Western Highway Upgrades, the Cross City Tunnel and Art Gallery Landbridge on the Eastern Distributor as well as numerous rail bridge assessment and replacement projects. John is currently the Jacobs Technical Director for Bridges for Australia and New Zealand.
 
Pierre-Yves Souesme
Freyssinet Australia
CABLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR FOOTBRIDGES 

Cables are used for numerous footbridges, among them cable stayed bridges, suspended bridges and arch type bridges. For such structures, the two most used cables are the locked cable and the parallel strand system (PSS). Each technology has advantages and disadvantages and preferred fields of use.  

The locked cable is prefabricated for purpose at the factory. It’s a compact system with simple connections that allow the construction of complex cable networks such as stadium roof or certain types of architectural bridges.  

The PSS consists of standardized 15.7mm strands individually protected with HDPE sheath cut at length and assembled on site. This system offers better durability and flexibility for installation. Therefore, this is the preferred solution for most of cable stayed and arch bridges.  

This presentation will review technical characteristics of both types of cable and show some typical applications in recent projects carried out by Freyssinet in Australia and internationally. 

BIOGRAPHY

Pierre-yves Souesme is Freyssinet Australia Business Development Manager and Technical Manager. He has 10 years’ experience in project management as main contractor and specialized civil engineering for large construction projects in Australia and overseas. He worked on a wide variety of projects from $2bn harbour development in Kuwait, LNG tanks manufacturing in Russia, cement plant retrofitting in Philippines or Staycable bridge in Algeria. He joined Freyssinet Australia in 2016 Pierre-yves holds a Masters of Engineering from Arts et Metiers Paris Tech majoring in Mechanical and Industrial.
 
Rob Howard
Senior Structural Engineer
Hatch
BRIDGE BUILT IN A DAY – PRE-FABRICATED CONSTRUCTION IN THE RAIL ENVIRONMENT

This presentation will cover two case studies on complex bridge construction in the rail environment. Each of these structures we constructed in one weekend to avoid disruption of rail operations.

The first case study will be Aitken Creek Railway Bridge, a 3 span steel bridge and how the choice of construction method, material and prefabrication allowed the structure to be built within one weekend rail occupation. We will cover the differences and advantages over a more common pre-stressed concrete construction. The second will focus on Little Malop Street Pedestrian Bridge, the first fully glass composite bridge over a railway in Australia.

The presentation will cover the advantages and challenges in rapid bridge construction using lightweight materials. A maintenance free, cost effective solution that could be lifted in a single piece.

The methods and skills used in the rail environment to achieve lightning fast construction can be applied to any construction environment. Communication between the contractor and designer as early as possible in the design process is fundamental to efficient and quick construction.

BIOGRAPHY

Rob Howard is a Senior Structural Engineer with Hatch. He has experience with a wide range of bridge and other infrastructure projects specialising in steel and modern material design. He is an industry leader in the application of finite element analysis to infrastructure and uses it to achieve excellent results on numerous projects.
 
Ryan Dewar
Civil Structures Engineer
Beca
David Duffield
Senior Projects Engineer
The Hills Shire Council

ICONIC TWINS: TWO PEDESTRIAN - CYCLEWAY BRIDGES AT KELLYVILLE

With the rapid development of Sydney’s outer suburbs, Kellyville has undergone a transformation with numerous residential and commercial developments along with the associated road and network infrastructure. The Two pedestrian bridges in Kellyville are vital links in the North-South pedestrian and cycleway corridor crossing two of the main arterial roads in the area, Windsor Road and Memorial Avenue. 

Beca Architects and Structural Engineers worked closely with the The Hills Shire Council client to achieve an aesthetic, robust and sustainable design that allowed for future expansion of the road network and minimal impact to nearby residents. The form of the bridges were chosen as a light-weight steel portal truss for the main spans with insitu concrete approach ramps with an emphasis on smooth curves and a seamless transition to the surrounding community known as Sydney’s garden shire. 

The Two bridges effortlessly incorporate large digital advertising screens serving as a significant revenue source to the council. 

This paper outlines how innovation in design and construction methodology nurtured a solution that transformed one of the simplest bridge forms into two seamless, flowing, income producing architectural symbols in the area.  

BIOGRAPHY 

Ryan Dewar is a Civil Structural Engineer with experience in a range of different projects in the Infrastructure market providing structural analysis and design of structures. He is a graduate of the University of Queensland with 1st class honours studying a Dual Degree in Civil/Structural Engineering and Commerce (Finance). Ryan also has a range of construction Site Engineering experience in projects which include Road, Airport, Hospital and Plant & Animal facilities.

David  Duffield is a civil structural engineer and project manager responsible for delivering new infrastructure projects for The Hills Shire Council. David has a bachelor’s degree in civil engineering from Wollongong University and a Masters of Engineering Science in Project Management from UNSW@ADFA.  

David’s experience includes time in the design office as a consulting engineer and time on the construction site as superintendent’s representative. David has been involved in projects on the M5 motorway in Sydney, Gungahlin Drive in Canberra, structural analysis and design for Sydney Water assets and delivery of road, building, waterway and bridge projects for The Hills Shire Council in suburban Sydney. David’s passion is managing the design and construction of road and pedestrian bridges.
 
Shane Crawford
A/Principal Manager (Structures Management Services) - Operational Service Delivery
RoadTek - Department of Transport and Main Roads
DEMOLITION OF THE ANGELLALA CREEK BRIDGES

On 5 September 2014 a truck carrying ammonium nitrate rolled and exploded destroying the bridge carrying the Mitchell Highway over Angellala Creek, approx. 30kms south of Charleville. The adjacent railway bridge was also significantly damaged in the blast. 

Upon completion of the initial investigation and clearance of the site for further explosive material, the Department of Transport and Main Roads took charge of the site on 13 September and began works immediately to restore access to this vital road link. 

This paper describes the works undertaken to safely manage the demolition of the unstable remains of these two bridge structures. Pertinent details of the interim and permanent restoration of this road link will also be discussed. 

BIOGRAPHY

Shane Crawford is a Principal Engineer with the Queensland Department of Transport and Main Roads, currently working within the Structures Management Services section of RoadTek. His primary responsibilities include the delivery of the Structures Maintenance Performance Contract (SMPC) across the state, accreditation of Level 2 inspectors and the provision of professional engineering advice relating to the inspection, maintenance and asset management of structures.
 
Sunthara Trang
Senior Bridge Engineer
KBR
ANNERLEY ROAD BRIDGE STRIKE PROTECTION BEAMS 

Two existing railway bridges span over Annerley Road in Dutton Park, South-East of Brisbane. The vertical clearance signposted for vehicles on Annerley Road passing under the bridges is 3.7m. The bridges had been struck 23 times by high vehicles between 2002 and 2013. In order to protect the bridge superstructure from vehicle striking, Queensland Rail (QR) identified an action to place a strike protection beam on each side of the bridges. QR awarded a contract to JF Hull Pty Ltd (JFH) to carry out the design and construction of the protection beams. KBR was engaged by JFH to design the protection beams.

The main challenge in the design was to optimise the structural elements of the beams and to locate them to avoid clashes with high density existing underground utilities and services along Annerley Road. Working through several options of the protection beam and consultations with Queensland Rail (QR), Brisbane City Council (BCC) and the contractor (JFH), KBR was able to complete the design within the schedule and the allocated budget. The protection beams were designed in accordance with AS 5100-2004 with a steel box section supported on steel box columns and bored piles. A finite element analysis was also performed to check high concentrated stresses in steel boxes due to an impact. The construction of the protection beams was completed in August 2014. KBR conducted structural inspections specific to the fabrication of the main continuous beams off site, and the major erection works required within tight construction timeframes, limited to only one night road closure per beam. For this outstanding innovative design, the project was recognised and won in the 2015 QLD Earth Awards in August 2015.  

BIOGRAPHIES 

Sunthara Trang obtained his bachelor’s degree in civil engineering in 1993 at the Kharkov Institute of Municipal Engineers in Ukraine. In 2000, he pursued a postgraduate study at the University of New South Wales in Sydney and obtained his master’s degree in structural engineering. Mr Trang has been working as a structural engineer in Cambodia and Australia. His main duties involve structural design of bridges and civil structures.

Pamela Howell is a senior structural engineer and project manager with over 10 years’ experience in the engineering industry. Pamela obtained her bachelor degree in Civil Engineering (Honours) at the University of Queensland in 2005. She has worked on a variety of structural engineering projects embracing industrial, bridge, water and rail infrastructure. For this project, Pamela was the Project Manager for concept, preliminary and detailed design, as well as Structural Engineer during the Construction Phase Inspections.
 
Tim Chappell
Senior Engineer
Parks and Wildlife Service
DESIGN, INSTALLATION AND MANAGEMENT OF REMOTE PEDESTRIAN STRUCTURES IN TASMANIA 

The Parks & Wildlife Service (PWS) in Tasmania manages a large network of walking tracks and associated pedestrian infrastructure including bridges, viewing platforms, elevated walkways and safety barriers. The design, installation and ongoing management of these structures presents challenges that are rarely encountered in a more urban setting. These can include difficult access, high rainfall, snow loading, freeze-thaw actions, coastal environments, bushfires and floods. 

The PWS has developed a range of practical solutions for managing assets in such environments. These include specialised structural designs, helicopter transport and lifting systems, visitor risk assessment tools and a risk-based approach to prioritising inspections and maintenance. 

This paper presents a summary of the designs, systems and management methods developed by PWS over recent years, including some examples of successes and failures. 

BIOGRAPHY

Tim Chappell is Senior Engineer with Parks & Wildlife Service Tasmania, a position he has held since 2008. With a strong interest in the natural environment and outdoor recreation he enjoys the challenge of managing infrastructure in some of the most remote and wild places in Australia. Tim has a background in structural design and, prior to joining the PWS, worked mostly in the renewable energy sector (hydro and wind generation).
 
Will McLean
Market Development Engineer
Galvanizers Association of Australia
PERFORMANCE OF PROTECTIVE COATINGS ON SMALL STEEL BRIDGES SUBJECT TO BUSHFIRE

Small steel bridges are often required in remote bushfire areas which are difficult to access for maintenance or repair. A durable corrosion resistant coating is usually specified for the steel, however the extent of coating damage and difficulty of coating repair due to bushfire activity is often overlooked. Bushfires rarely have sufficient flame duration or high enough intensity to compromise the structural integrity of the steel bridge members, with the majority of time spent restoring the protective coating before the bridge can be returned to service. 

This presentation will explore the temperature tolerance of common protective coatings and assess their suitability for specification in bushfire areas. Suggested methods to inspect these coatings after exposure to bushfires will also be presented, and repair recommendations provided based on the outcomes of previous enquiries.

BIOGRAPHY 

Will is the Market Development Engineer for the Galvanizers Association of Australia. His responsibilities include responding to engineering enquiries, preparing technical documentation for members, staying abreast of new Australian Standards, and presenting to engineers, architects and students Australia wide. Will keeps his knowledge up to date by attending relevant conferences and is a member of various Victorian young professionals committees, including Engineers Australia, Australian Steel Institute and Australasian Corrosion Association.
 
Will Zillmann
Business Development Manager
ITS Pipetech
Doug Jenkins
Managing Director
Interactive Design Solutions
Lachlan Drak
Structural Engineer, 
Lyndsay Dynan Consulting
INNOVATIVE ENGINEERING TO REPLACE SMALL BRIDGE STRUCTURES

Replacing complex and aged sub surface structures to meet the never ending need for faster, smarter and increasing delivery often involves considerable disruption of day to day business for the infrastructure operator, therefore the search for non-disruptive and cost beneficial rehabilitation technologies remains a high priority in today’s demanding maintenance programs especially in remote and harsh locations.

 

Innovation and adapting existing technologies using concrete and steel reinforcement as functional rehabilitation techniques for new approaches in infrastructure maintenance is high on designers and contractor’s priority targets and is seen as key to keeping costs and disruption down to a manageable level to remain competitive in the rehabilitation market.

 

The logistics management for much of Australia’s transport infrastructure is fundamental to the National economy such that interruption’s to the surface traffic is always to be avoided unless physically impossible, however as the sub surface infrastructure ages the repairs to bridges and large profile culverts require more innovative solutions in order to achieve this.

 

This paper reports on the unique application of a tunnel and culvert structural remediation technology addressed to a multi span corrugated steel plate bridge that was showing advanced stages of metal corrosion having been operable for over 45 years. This triple span bridge each of which measures 8.4m wide and 4.2m high, is located to the south of Wickham in the Pilbara and services the main Iron Ore route to Cape Lambert. With axle loads approaching 50 T and facilitating the transport of over 180 million tonnes or Ore per year, the drive to develop a suitable structural rehabilitation without affecting or slowing down the movement of the traffic above became a key deliverable in the overall work proposal.

 

The ability to use innovative design combined with FE Modelling techniques enabled the development of a high strength reinforced concrete solution that met the Clients requirements without any surface disruption. This combined with a specially designed light weight modular panel formwork facilitated the installation of a fully structural concrete multi span bridge lining, resulted in zero interruptions or speed restrictions to the operation and delivery of freight to the ore terminals.

 
BIOGRAPHY 

Will is an engineer with over 30 years’ industry experience. Will has worked for one of Australia’s leading pipeline manufacturers as well as leading Australian trenchless pipeline rehabilitation companies. He has served on Australian Standards Joint Technical Committee, WS-016, Cast Iron Pressure Pipes and Fittings as well as International Standards Organisation Technical Committee ISO/TC 5/SC 2, Cast iron pipes, fittings and their joints. His experience includes pipeline design & manufacture, pipeline infrastructure assessment & forensic investigation, economic analysis & material selection and coatings and linings selection. He has experience in both open trench pipeline construction and trenchless rehabilitation techniques, cost estimating, assessment of constructability, contract management and pipeline installation training. Will is committed to finding optimal project solutions using cutting edge and innovative technology.
 
Wolfram Schwarz
Principal Engineer, Transport Structures
WSP
Nimal Jayasekera
Delivery Manger Structures
Main Roads Western Australia
Neil Westmacott 
Principal Engineer, Transport Structures 
WSP 
INNOVATION IN STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE BRIDGES

Steel-concrete composite structures have been used in construction to benefit from the elements’ best material behaviour. The interaction between the two materials and how to provide the most effective connection has seen multiple approaches. The latest evolution has been a steel concrete composite design method using composite dowels to transmit longitudinal shear forces between the compound materials steel and concrete. Composite dowels are formed by a steel rib consisting of an intended cut shape (steel-dowel) and the reinforced concrete that fills the recesses in the steel plate (concrete-dowel). Due to its load capacity, one composite dowel is able to replace a group of shear studs which adds economic advantages to the constructability and structural benefits of this detail. Years of research across Europe led to several hundred bridges being constructed based on this innovative method and have proven its effectiveness and financial benefits. The design and construction challenges of the first Australian bridge applying the composite dowel design method will be discussed in this paper. 

BIOGRAPHIES 

Wolfram Schwarz is a Chartered Professional Engineer with over 16 years’ experience in road and rail bridge inspection, assessment and design. He is recognised as a trusted provider of engineering services with a passion to introduce non-conventional design solutions. He advises clients on management strategies for bridges to free up funds for much needed bridge replacements.

Nimal Jayasekera has 32 years of career history as a Civil Engineer with wide range of Design, Construction and Project Management experience in road and bridge projects. After completion of his Master’s Degree in University of New South Wales, he started working for Main Roads Western Australia. He has been working in Structures area for last 20 years delivering major bridge projects in Main Roads WA South West Region.

Neil Westmacott has over 26 years of experience in the civil engineering profession. He has extensive experience designing and assessing bridge structures in prestressed concrete, steel-concrete composite and prestressed-concrete composite. He has been involved in bridge designs incorporating construction methods varying from heavy lift/transported structures, precast, trussed, cast-insitu and segmental construction.