33rd Annual Hands-On Relay School
 
OVERVIEW LECTURES
 
Distribution Protection Overview Lecture Handout 1   Handout 2   Handout 3
Kevin Damron, Avista
This lecture will review fundamental principles of distribution system protection, including IEEE device designations, fault current calculations, coordination of overcurrent protection, and reclosing schemes.

Transmission Protection Overview Lecture
Normann Fischer, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc
This lecture will review fundamental principles of transmission line protection.  Concepts of distance protection, directional overcurrent, line differential, and pilot protection schemes will be discussed.

Generation Protection Overview Lecture
Wayne Hartmann & Jon Grooters, Beckwith Electric
This lecture will review fundamental principles of generation protection theory and application with a focus on industry standards and best practices.

 
 
INTRODUCTION TO SYSTEM PROTECTION LECTURE SERIES
 
Brent Carper, Relay Application Innovation
 
Ron Alexander, Bonneville Power Administration

Print Reading and Lessons Learned from the Field
Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy

 

FRIDAY FEATURE PRESENTATIONS
 
Power System Operations
Rich Hydzik, Avista Utilities
What does it take to drive the power system?  Keeping substation voltages within schedule, preventing lines from overloading, and anticipating the next outage can be a difficult task.  Lecture will cover how system operators control voltage/Vars, utilize Automatic Generation Control (AGC) to balance load to generation in real time, and maintain overall stability of the power system.
 
Venkat Mynam, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc
Lecture will discuss fault location methods using traveling waves, field data shall be used to demonstrate the exceptional accuracy at the fault location.  Traveling waves can also be used to provide ultra high speed line protection.  this lecture will discuss traveling basic differential and directional line detection elements.
 
 
OPEN CONCURRENT LECTURES
The Hands-On Relay School offers twelve lectures on a wide range of topics relevant to the trade.  Each lecture is one hour long and given a total of three times.  Students can attend up to six lectures of their choosing.
 

Breaker Failure Protection
Brent Carper, Relay Application Innovation Inc
This lecture will review different types of breaker failure protection systems, relays, and logic, including general considerations for determining relay pickup and timing settings.

CT Testing & Theory
Jay Anderson, OMICRON
Current measurement is integral to almost all protection schemes on the power system and since direct measurement is not an option in many cases current transformers must be used. Lecture will cover the operating principles of how current transformers work (including polarity, ratio and excitation) as well as how to test them to ensure proper performance and accuracy

End to End Testing      Paper
Rick Asche, Portland General Electric
Communication assisted protection schemes require time synchronized fault current simulations to properly test the entire scheme. This lecture will present an overview of the procedure for test preparation and organization, equipment requirements, fault selection, test execution and the performance criteria for commissioning a new or existing transmission protection scheme. Application to other protection schemes will also be discussed.

Fault Analysis for Relay Technicians
Ken Workman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories
Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find the root cause. This session provides an outline of the event analysis process, several real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Generator Auxiliary Systems
Zach Behrens, MWH
Protective relays are only a portion of what is necessary to keep generators operating and healthy. This lecture will provide students with an overview of synchronous generator auxiliary systems. Areas of study include: governors, exciters, machine condition monitoring, cooling systems, lube systems, and more.
Note If you are a student in the Theory Track, please do not attend this lecture as this material plus more on Generator Auxiliaries will be covered in the Theory Track.

Mho Testing Techniques & Math         Rodger's Notes
Rodger Allen, ACS Professional Staffing
Learn or re-visit the considerations to take and the math behind selecting the voltages and currents to test the characteristic of phase to phase & 3 phase mho distance units effectively and efficiently.
Students will participate in phase to phase voltage & current calculations. Test equipment and relays will demonstrate the success.

Negative Sequence – How to Use It
Greg Smelich, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc
With the advent of microprocessor relays, access to sequence network values in real time is now common place. How do we use these qualities for better and fast protection of the power system? Protection schemes that use negative sequence will be discussed and include differential, overcurrent, and directional elements.

Phasor Diagrams
Ron Alexander, Bonneville Power Administration
Phasors are the universal language of system protection technicians and engineers. This lecture emphasizes the need for a basic knowledge of phasor diagrams and their use in understanding the power system. Topics include load flow phasor analysis, fault phasor analysis, and using Phasors to determine the phase angle across delta-wye transformers banks.

Remedial Action Schemes
Davis Erwin, Pacific Gas & Electric
Remedial Action Schemes, otherwise known as Special Protection Systems (SPS), are becoming more common among utilities. This presentation will provide an overview of why these schemes are necessary, cover different types of RAS schemes, and discuss design criteria to help understand these sometimes complicated systems.

Substation Commissioning
Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy
A discussion on substation commissioning, from small device repair to full green field substation projects. The focus will be on developing a plan to completely commission equipment with a check and balance system that gives the technician confidence that the job was done correctly. Example checklists and worksheets will be handed out to students. How to get it right the first time.

Symmetrical Components 1
Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Basic principles of symmetrical components with explanation of phasors, per unit system, and symmetrical component equations using sequence networks. Suggested prerequisite for Symmetrical Component 2 class

Symmetrical Components 2

Stephen Marx, Bonneville Power Administration
Analysis of power system elements with symmetrical components sequence network and network connections for each power system fault types. Samples of protective relay applications using symmetrical component method. Suggest attending Symmetrical Components 1 lecture as a prerequisite.


THEORY TRACK LECTURES

Generator Protection
Roy Moxley, Siemens
Political and economic factors have been driving the introduction of new generation sources in the power grid.  This session will present the characteristics of a number of these sources and how they impact protection.  Included will be: wind with its different types of machines; solar and small synchronous media.  Impacts discussed will include dynamic performance, reclosing considerations and protection options.

Generator Auxiliaries
Zach Behrens, MWH
Protective relays are only a portion of what is necessary to keep generators operating and healthy.  This lecture will provide students with an overview of synchronous generator auxiliary systems.  Areas of study include governors, exciters, machine condition monitoring, cooling systems, lube systems, and more.

Power Quality
John Schaad, Bonneville Power Administration
This course covers the basic concepts, terminology, relevant standards, effects on customers' equipment, and examples of Power Quality disturbances.

Generator Protection Theory 
Wayne Hartmann, Jon Grooters and Steve Turner, Beckwith Electric
This session provides fundamental information on generator construction, connection, and grounding.  They influence ground fault protection methodology.  A review of the latest IEEE Guide for Generator Protection (C37.102) provides an overall baseline into the various recommended protections.  Explanations of how they function to protect the generator against internal faults, system faults, and generator and system abnormal operation.  Upgrade considerations, NERC issues with event reporting and use of visualization tools for setting, commissioning, test and event analysis.  Testing methodology and demonstration for ground fault protections is explained and demonstrated.  In particular, testing injection-based protections including 64S 100% stator ground fault and 64F/B rotor ground fault/brush lift are detailed.

Prime Movers, Synchronous Generator Construction and Protection
Rogerio Scharlach, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc
This course covers the basic principles of the most common primer movers: gas, steam, hydraulic, and wind turbines.  It discusses the constructive aspects of a synchronous generator and provides the students with a comprehensive introductions to synchronous generator protection.