36th Annual Hands-On Relay School

Safety Barriers
Kurt Heinz, Puget Sound Energy

Kevin Damron, Avista
This lecture will review fundamental principles of distribution system protection, including IEEE device designations, fault current calculations, coordination of overcurrent protection, and reclosing schemes.

Transmission Protection Overview Lecture
Dan Henriod, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
This lecture will review fundamental principles of transmission line protection.  Concepts of distance protection, directional overcurrent, line differential, and pilot protection schemes will be discussed.

Generation Protection Overview Lecture (printable)
Rogerio Scharlach, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
This lecture will review fundamental principles of generation protection theory and application with a focus on industry standards and best practices.

Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
Bill Unbehaun, Tacoma Power

Paul Luther, Puget Sound Energy


Falling Conductor Protection
Kirsten Petersen, San Diego Gas & Electric
SDG&E is implementing Falling Conductor Protection on its distribution system to minimize the risk of wildfire ignition and other potential impacts to public safety.  Falling Conductor Protection utilizes advanced relay, phasor measurement, radio, and IT communications technology to detect broken overhead conductors and de-energize distribution circuits before the line can reach the ground.  This technology is currently undergoing testing and has been implemented on four of SDG&E's existing distribution circuits, with two more scheduled to be completed this year.
Rich Bauer, NERC
Root Cause Analysis (RCA) has been demonstrated to be a critical tool in the prevention of events, especially in the area of human performance errors.  System Protection is a very complex function that has a high opportunity for human error.  With the ever increasing complexity of relay settings, control logic schemes and requirements for periodic testing, the opportunity for errors/misoperations is great than ever.  RCA can help us to learn from our events and implement the right measures to prevent future similar events.  This presentation will discuss some of the tools and methods of RCA as well as discuss actual events and their corrective actions after an RCA was performed.
The Hands-On Relay School offers twelve lectures on a wide range of topics relevant to the trade.  Each lecture is one hour long and given a total of three times.  Students can attend up to six lectures of their choosing.

Arc Flash Protection
Joe Xavier, ABB
Arc flash incidents do occur in indoor switchgear installations. There are several factors which can initiate an arc flash event. Such an event can cause serious damage to the equipment, injure operating personnel, and result in loss of revenue. This lecture will review probable reasons behind arc flash incidents, parameters which influence the incident energy, and arc flash detection and mitigation techniques.

DC Ground Detection
Eric Haut, Portland General Electric
Unmitigated ground paths on ungrounded DC systems pose a threat to reliability and safety. The technology for monitoring and troubleshooting DC grounds has evolved over the decades. This lecture will cover the simple dual-lightbulb monitoring of the past up to today’s digital monitoring systems. Watch hands-on demonstrations of troubleshooting methods, from the simple-but-effective resistive jumper to computerized DC ground locators.

Energy Storage
Steve Larson, Snohomish PUD
Energy storage will become increasingly important to electric utilities, as more renewable energy sources are added to the generation mix replacing base-load fossil fuel plants. Battery-based storage systems are being added to utility systems at a rapid rate. This lecture will describe various types of energy storage, including Pumped Hydro Storage, flywheels, compressed air, and the various battery technologies. Mr. Larson will also discuss two operating battery energy storage systems installed at Snohomish PUD, a lithium-ion system installed in 2014/2015 and a vanadium flow battery installed in 2017.

Fault Analysis for Technicians
Ken Workman, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
Event reports continue to be an invaluable feature in microprocessor-based relays. Some events are relatively straightforward to analyze, and others require experience and considerable knowledge of the power system and protective relay system in order to find the root cause. This session provides an outline of the event analysis process, several real-world event examples, time to evaluate them, and solutions.

Ground Mho    Handout
Steve Laslo, Bonneville Power Administration
This lecture will cover fundamentals of Ground-Distance Relay Protection and Testing. We will examine principles that affect relay settings and decision-making and introduce ground-distance relay concepts such as ‘compensation factor/Kn’, ‘per-phase impedance’, and ‘loop impedance’. We will also discuss how to calculate test quantities for ground-mho and ground-quad characteristics and examine some sample automated test results.

Mho Testing Techniques & Math (Ph-Ph)         Handout
Rodger Allen, ACS Professional Staffing
Learn or re-visit the considerations to take and the math behind selecting the voltages and currents to test the characteristics of phase-to-phase mho distance units effectively and efficiently. Students will put to use the skills learned from vector math like taught in the phasor lecture by participating in phase-to-phase voltage & current calculations. Test Equipment, Meters & Relays are used to demonstrate those calculations.

Steve Laslo, Bonneville Power Administration
Phasors are the universal language of system protection technicians and engineers. This lecture emphasizes the need for a basic knowledge of phasor diagrams and their use in understanding the power system. Topics include load flow phasor analysis, fault phasor analysis, and using phasors to determine the phase angle across delta-wye transformers banks.

SCADA for Relay Technicians  Slides with Notes  Interactive Excel Document

Tracy Kealy, Bonneville Power Administration
Covers aspects of SCADA that most affect relay technicians. This includes an overview of Distributed Network Protocol (DNP) 3.0, Modbus, and troubleshooting common errors from the protective relay/IED configured as a DNP3 or Modbus slave.

Testing Breaker Failure Schemes
Chris Werstiuk, Valence Electrical Training Services
Relay testers who want to test breaker failure (50BF) schemes should understand how 50BF schemes are applied, how to perform basic relay testing tasks, and how to interpret and simulate relay logic schemes. This lecture will help you understand and simulate the three main parts of breaker failure protection (50BF initiate, Breaker open/close status, and 50BF time delay) to help you create effective breaker failure test plans that can be applied to any relay with any test-set.

Transformer Aux Protection
Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering
Transformer protection includes specialized equipment such as sudden pressure relays, Buchholz relays, temperature monitors, liquid level gauges, gas and moisture monitors, and other devices. This lecture will cover these auxiliary devices and how they function, including trip circuit seal-in, targeting, and lockout relays.

Two-& Three-Winding Transformer Connections and Circulating Currents      Paper
Abdur Rehman, Puget Sound Energy
This presentation explores common 2- and 3-winding transformer connections and how positive, negative, and zero-sequence currents circulate during phase and ground fault conditions.  Transformer sequence networks and associated symmetrical components are analyzed.

Understanding and Troubleshooting Real-World Power Quality Problems
Troy Ledford, Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc.
This session will be an introduction to the characteristics of power quality (PQ) problems. Real-world examples will be reviewed. The discussion will include symptoms, tools for analysis and prevention measures.


Arc Flash Fundamentals & Compliance   Arc Flash Regulations and Mitigation Update
Samy Faried, ABB, Inc.
This lecture will include understanding arc flash hazards, arc flash hazard analysis methods, arc flash warning labels, mitigation methods for arc flash, arc flash detection systems and testing arc flash detection systems.

Distribution Protection
Jeanne Harshbarger, Snohomish County PUD
Protection of distribution systems has many unique and interesting challenges. We will cover the objectives of protection, look at some examples, review equipment available for use, and consider how distribution protection is evolving with the changing times.

Distribution Circuit Phasing  Second Presentation
Brent Carper, 3AC Engineering, Greg Sharpes, Avista Utilities, and Walter Collins, Puget Sound Energy
Understanding the as-built phasing of a distribution circuit is necessary for fault analysis and troubleshooting, and it is critical for line reclosers and other devices that are going to perform distribution automation and advanced protection functions such as negative sequence overcurrent. This session will review common conventions for distribution line construction phasing and will demonstrate how to use the HMI phasor displays available in line reclosers to troubleshoot common circuit phasing issues. Weather dependent, the class will visit an in-service 13kV line recloser installation where the local utility will perform a live demonstration of modern tools that use GPS and cellular IP data to make positive phase identification at any location in the power system.

Distributed Generation: Interconnection, Operation, and Protection Part I         Part II
Wayne Hartmann, Beckwith Electric Co., Inc.
This session provides solid background on distributed generation (DG) from multiple aspects: industry history, types, operational sequences, benefits to Utilities and Owners, control, example guidelines, IEEE 1547 and point-of-common coupling (PCC) interface to culminate and focus on protection aspects at the PCC as well as impact on distribution protection. Lab sessions include examination of documentation for a DG installation to culminate on typical protection settings. Various relays will be used to accomplish the protection mission, settings made on the relays, and impact of settings discussed.

Wind Energy
Roy Moxley, Siemens
This discussion will provide information on wind generation and how it impacts the grid and protection in particular. An overview of machine types and their performance will be provided. Connections to the grid and problems encountered will be presented. Protection solutions will be presented and future developments discussed.